Handling Bibliographic Holdings Information in Z39.50:

Implications for the Z Texas Profile

by



William E. Moen, Ph.D.

wemoen@jove.acs.unt.edu

School of Library and Information Sciences

University of North Texas

Denton, TX 76203

Z39.50

Home | Implementation Resources

Contents

1.0    Introduction

2.0    Background

3.0    Problems in Accessing and Retrieving Holdings Information

4.0    The OPAC/Holdings Schema Explained

5.0    The Use of the OPAC/Holdings Schema in the Z Texas Profile

6.0    Conclusion


References

Appendix A: Selected Definitions of OPAC/Holdings Schema Elements


1.0    Introduction

The ANSI/NSIO Z39.50 standard has the positive potential to affect libraries' abilities to share resources.  An early use of Z39.50 was to identify bibliographic records for copy cataloging purposes.  Librarians realized, however, that Z39.50 could enhance service to users by providing information about who owned copies of the resources described by the bibliographic records and any constraints on borrowing those items.   Holdings information is critical to several library applications, especially interlibrary loan and union catalogs.  Recently the Z39.50 Implementors Group (ZIG) has addressed the issues related to exchanging holdings information through Z39.50.   Agreements at the past several ZIG meetings has put in place the mechanism for standardizing the retrieval of holdings information.  The timing is excellent for the Z Texas Project since we can use the standard mechanism and specify its use in the Z Texas Profile.   This paper describes this mechanism and proposes how the Z Texas Profile can specify its use.

2.0    Background

The evolution of Z39.50 has addressed increasingly sophisticated requirements of the library community.  The initial work on Z39.50 in the 1980s focused on search and retrieval of bibliographic records (usually some variant of the MARC record) to assist library cataloging functions. In fact, the earliest application of the Z39.50 protocol was to support the identification and interchange of name authority records.  Since that time, librarians and other groups have identified important functional requirements for Z39.50, and over time the standard has evolved to address these requirements. 

A key requirement for library resource sharing involves the use of bibliographic holdings information.  The Z39.50 standards developers provided one approach to retrieving holdings and circulation information by defining a Z39.50 OPAC Record Syntax in Z39.50-1995.   This approach was limited by they ways in which local systems processed and stored holdings information.  There was also a limit in the extent of holdings that could be contained in a Z39.50 OPAC Record.

Holdings information is critical in another important area: virtual union catalog applications.  The National Library of Canada and other have experimented and deployed Z39.50 to simulate a union catalog. Part of this project included the evaluation of Z39.50 usefulness in creating a virtual union catalog.  An important result of that project was the realization that library automation systems handle and process bibliographic holdings information in various ways . The lack of cross-system consistency in handling holdings information focused renewed attention on solving the Z39.50 holdings information problem.

Participants in the various union catalog projects and other applications wanting to use Z39.50 to access and retrieve holdings information began work in 1997 on a standards-based approach to solving the holdings information problems.  The result of this effort is currently reaching stability with the release of the OPAC/Holdings Schema: Definitions and Examples (Third Draft -- March 10, 1999).   At the most recent ZIG meeting in Palo Alto, California (March 17-19), participants approved, with minor changes, the latest draft of the OPAC/Holdings Schema.  It is now ready for use by Z39.50 implementors.

3.0    Problems in Accessing and Retrieving Holdings Information

The need for bibliographic holdings information, especially in applications of virtual union catalogs, is critical.  When users (librarian or patron) know a specific item they are interested in acquiring,  they search a union catalog with the goal of retrieving  location and availability information rather than the bibliographic information about the item.  Zeeman and Turner (1997) describe some of the basic problems related to interchanging holdings information.  Transferring holdings information is problematic since holdings information may be embedded in a USMARC bibliographic record (i.e. in several of the 85x fields) or may be held in separate holdings records that can be expressed in the USMARC Holdings Format.  The USMARC Holdings records are capable of carrying much more detailed holdings information than is possible by embedding holdings information in a USMARC bibliographic record.

Embedding holdings information in the bibliographic record's 850 field allows the identification of institutions that hold the item, but other pertinent information such as local call numbers, availability information, information about the number of copies, or details of serial holdings cannot be carried in the bibliographic record.  For greater detail, the USMARC Holdings Format needs to be used, and often there will be multiple holdings records linked to a single bibliographic record.  "The most detailed holdings for other than a single copy can therefore be transferred only as a cluster of records: a MARC bibliographic record plus multiple linked MARC holdings records" (Zeeman and Turner, 1997).   But there are a limited number of vendors that do or plan to support the MARC holdings format in their implementations.

The diversity of detail of holdings information, the various ways the information an be carried in MARC records, and the differences in how library systems implementors process the holdings information (i.e., store, retrieve, and express) has led to major challenges for designers and builders of virtual union catalogs.  The experience of the vCuc Project demonstrated that "there are no common ways, at this time, to retrieve consistent holdings information using the Z39.50 protocol, due to the fact that most implementors have adopted a more or less proprietary approach in retrieving this information" (St-Gelais & Data Research Associates, 1997, p. 2).

In part, the difficulty of using Z39.50 to retrieve holdings information is a problem because of the constraints of the underlying model of Z39.50.  This model simply is that a Z-client passes a query to a Z-server that executes it on a local database.   The Z-server compiles a result set that consists of the records in the database that meet the query criteria.  The Z-client can then ask for one or more records from the result set.  If there is a cluster of holdings records associated with one of the bibliographic records in the result set, the Z39.50 protocol doesn't offer a way for the Z-client to request or the Z-server to return them from the initial result set.  Several project and systems have attempted to solve this and other holdings information problems by implementing proprietary solutions, but this has simply compounded the problem since there is no standards-based approach that might provide consistency in transferring holdings information.

The approach in Z39.50-1995 defined an OPAC Record Syntax that could be used to wrap clusters of bibliographic and holdings information together for transfer to the Z-client.  This solution was problematic because the OPAC Record Syntax allowed either the transfer of MARC Holdings records within it or the compilation of holdings and circulation data.  Options such as this make interoperability more difficult.  Further, the OPAC Record Syntax was oriented to transferring holdings and circulation data for a single library and thus did not accommodate needs for a virtual union catalog. 

4.0    The OPAC/Holdings Schema Explained

The origins of the current OPAC/Holdings Schema date from 1997 when Data Research Associates (DRA) under the authorship of Rolande St-Gelais issued Holdings Retrieval using GRS-1 and OPAC for discussion at the August 1997 ZIG meeting. Based on discussions at that meeting, St. Gelais worked with a subgroup of ZIG members developed a proposal for an OPAC/Holdings Schema that would address the problems outlined above.  An early controversial decision was to use the Z39.50 Generic Record Syntax (GRS-1) to retrieve and package up holdings information as specified in the OPAC/Holdings Schema. 

St-Gelais' paper included Table 1 (below) that details a set of objectives related to retrieving holdings information.  Some of the objectives were considered "fundamental" (objectives 1-4), "quite important" (objectives 5-6), "if possible" (objectives 7-8), and "nice to" (objectives 9-10).   Any solutions developed needed to address these objectives:

Table 1

Objectives and Purposes of Holdings Information Exchanged through Z39.50

Objective Number

Specific Objective

Purpose

1

Retrieve location information

Determine which organizations have one or more copies of an item

2

Retrieve summary serial holdings information

Determine the extent of each run (or copy) of the serial item held by an organization

3

Retrieve local call numbers/copy information

Identify precisely a single copy of an item held by an organization

4

Ability to retrieve detailed serial holdings, that is, to the issue level

Ensures that an organization has a specific issue before carrying on a subsequent operation

5

Obtain availability and circulation information

Provides immediate information about the availability of an item, if may be lent, and so on

6

Obtain the library's lending policy for an item

Provide terms for inter-lending purposes, essential to union catalogues

7

Ability to distinguish holdings items per bibliographic unit type.

Provides information as to whether the kind of item at hand represents the basic bibliographic item, supplements or indexes

8

Obtain number of copies held, per location

Provide additional "hints" as to the probability of getting the known-item

9

Possibility to scope holdings per location(s)

Locate an item in a nearby geographic location or region of interest

10

Possibility to: Browse, sort or update holdings

Provide additional "views" of the same holdings data and possibility to modify them (for presumably authorized users)

Taking account of the challenges in achieving these objectives, St-Gelais also identified a set of criteria to consider when evaluating the proposed solutions:

  • Respect the Z39.50 result set model, i.e., one retrieval record is to be returned per result set item
  • Version 2 compatible
  • Performance versus holdings information needed
  • Common holdings data vehicle
  • Independence between bibliographic and holdings data vehicles
  • No prior knowledge of a specific server's database model.

Since the early discussion papers and proposals, work continued on an OPAC/Holdings Schema, and this Schema was approved by the ZIG at the March 1999 meeting in Palo Alto, CA.

The Schema describes a model of a bibliographic item that is accommodated by the Schema.  The Schema defines an OPAC/Holdings record constituted by the schema as carrying both bibliographic information about an item along with holdings information associated with the item. The Schema document adopts fundamental definitions for a bibliographic item and bibliographic unit from ISO 10324.  (See Appendix A for definitions to assist in understanding this explanation of the OPAC/Holdings Schema.) 

The Schema views a bibliographic unit as comprising any number of parts that may be issued over time.  It defines three levels at which holdings information may be associated with a bibliographic item (paraphrased from the Schema document):

  • Bibliographic Level: holdings data for a bibliographic item in a generic way, i.e., independently of any specific copy.
  • Copy Level: holdings data for each individual copy of a bibliographic item
  • Piece Level: circulation data for the different physical units associated with a bibliographic item

Associated with these levels are three holdings reporting levels that correspond with the levels described previously:

  • Bibliographic Level Holdings
  • Copy Level Holdings
  • Piece Level Holdings

For each reporting level, the Schema offer several associated levels of data as follows:

  • Bibliographic Level Holdings
    • Level B-1: Minimal bibliographic level holdings (i.e., "Location only")
    • Level B-2: Summary bibliographic level holdings (i.e., non copy-specific summary holdings)
    • Level B-3: Detailed bibliographic level holdings (i.e., non copy-specific detailed holdings)
  • Copy Level Holdings
    • Level C-1: Minimal copy level holdings (i.e., "Copies only")
    • Level C-2: Summary copy level holdings (i.e., summary holdings per copy)
    • Level C-3: Detailed copy level holdings (i.e., detailed holdings per copy)
    • Level C-4: Extended copy level holdings (i.e., detailed holdings with circulation information)
  • Piece Level Holdings
    • Level P-1: Minimal piece level holdings (i.e., circulating pieces only)
    • Level P-2: Summary piece level holdings (i.e., summary content of circulating pieces)
    • Level P-3: Detailed piece level holdings (i.e., detailed content of circulating pieces)

The Schema defines the elements associated with holdings data for the three reporting levels and the levels of data included at each level.  In addition, the Schema indicates the USMARC Authority Format fields and subfields associated with selected elements.

The use of schemas in Z39.50 provides a vocabulary and language shared by both the Z-client and Z-server for purposes of communication.  In the case of the OPAC/Holding Schema, the schema elements provide labels to identify discrete units of holdings information.  For example, the OPAC/Holding Schema element locationName will be associated with the following information: "name of the physical site, i.e., name of institution followed, optionally, by the name(s) of one or many of its sub-divisions."  Thus, for each schema element, exact definitions and descriptions of the data to be associated with the element are provided (see Appendix A).

The Schema in its final form will provide an OPAC/Holdings Tagset that will assign a number to each of the elements in the schema. In addition, the Schema provides an Abstract Record Structure that shows the relationship between the elements of defined by the Schema, especially the hierarchical relationships where one schema element is a subelement to another element.

In summary, the OPAC/Holdings Schema provides a fully detailed structure in which Z39.50 implementors can map local holdings information where each unit of holdings information is explicitly labeled.  Upon retrieval by the Z-client of an OPAC-1 record, the Z-client will be able to process the information in a meaningful manner.  The OPAC/Holdings Schema makes no assumptions nor prescribes how local systems store or process their local holdings information.  The local server is free to utilize existing USMARC Holdings Format records, assemble the holdings information at the time of retrieval, etc.   Local server implementors need only map their holdings information to the elements of the OPAC/Holdings Schema.  Once the OPAC-1 Record is assembled by the Z-server, the Generic Record Syntax (GRS-1) provides the syntax to package the elements for transfer to the Z-client. 

Because of the various levels of reporting that are offered and the likelihood that a single bibliographic item may be available in  multiple copies and locations, the OPAC/Holdings Schema's Abstract Record Structure indicates for each of the reporting levels the elements that are mandatory, optional, and repeatable.  In addition, to make the OPAC/Holdings Schema usable by Version 2 Z-clients and Z-servers, the final version of the Schema will define a set of static element set names (ESNs) that group selected sets of elements for retrieval in an OPAC-1 record. These ESNs will likely correspond to the 10 reporting levels listed above (see discussion below in 5.0 Use of OPAC in the Z Texas Profile).  Z-clients and Z-servers supporting Version 3 may use the comp-Spec parameter of the Present Service to specify the desired composition of elements for the retrieval record.  The latter approach provides the potential for further customization of the composition of the retrieval record.

5.0 The Use of the OPAC/Holdings Schema in the Z Texas Profile

At the February 1999 meeting of the Z39.50 Texas Implementors Group (TZIG), the participants agreed that Release 1.0 of the Z Texas Profile would include the specifications for using the OPAC/Holdings Schema.  Participants agreed that access to holdings information was a fundamental requirement, especially as the Z Texas Profile is attempting to lay the technical infrastructure for state-wide resource sharing.   This section proposes how the OPAC/Holdings Schema may be specified in the Profile.

A key decision for the Profile is to determine the level of reporting of holdings information that is necessary, at least in the short -term to gain experience with the OPAC/Holdings Schema.   Section 4.0 identified the various levels of reporting, and for Release 1.0 of the Z Texas Profile, the following reporting levels are proposed as indicated by bold:

  • Bibliographic Level Holdings
    • Level B-1: Minimal bibliographic level holdings (i.e., "Location only")
    • Level B-2: Summary bibliographic level holdings (i.e., non copy-specific summary holdings)
    • Level B-3: Detailed bibliographic level holdings (i.e., non copy-specific detailed holdings)
  • Copy Level Holdings
    • Level C-1: Minimal copy level holdings (i.e., "Copies only")
    • Level C-2: Summary copy level holdings (i.e., summary holdings per copy)
    • Level C-3: Detailed copy level holdings (i.e., detailed holdings per copy)
    • Level C-4: Extended copy level holdings (i.e., detailed holdings with circulation information)
  • Piece Level Holdings
    • Level P-1: Minimal piece level holdings (i.e., circulating pieces only)
    • Level P-2: Summary piece level holdings (i.e., summary content of circulating pieces)
    • Level P-3: Detailed piece level holdings (i.e., detailed content of circulating pieces)

Each of these levels of reporting will be assigned an Element Set Name (ESN), and the Z-client will use the ESN to request the holdings information at a single reporting level.  The Z-client may use successive Presents using different ESNs to retrieve additional holdings information.

The following describes the OPAC/Holdings Schema elements that would be associated for each ESN (note that the names used in the ESN's listed below may be changed when the official ESNs are assigned by the OPAC/Holdings working group).  Readers should refer to the OPAC/Holdings Scheme for additional details.  The first instance of an element in the tables is linked to its definition in Appendix A.

Level B-1: Minimal bibliographic level holdings (i.e., "Location only")

ESN: MinimalBibliographicLevelHoldings

Description: Provides list of sites that have holdings of the bibliographic item 

Element

Subelement

USMARC field/subfield

Repeatability

Item Identification

 

004

NR

Site Location

 

 

R

 

Target location identifier

n/a

NR

 

Institution identifier

852 $a

NR

 

Location name

852 $b

NR

Level B-2: Summary bibliographic level holdings (i.e., non copy-specific summary holdings)

ESN: SummaryBibliographicLevelHoldings

Description: Reports summary holdings information about the bibliographic item, and not copy-level information

Element

Subelement

Subelement

USMARC field/subfield

Repeatability

Item Identification

 

 

004

NR

Site Location

 

 

 

R

 

Target location identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Institution identifier

 

852 $a

NR

 

Location name

 

852 $b

NR

Bibliographic Unit

 

 

 

R

 

Target bib unit identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Type of unit designator

 

Leader/17 + presence of 865-878

NR

 

Type of part designator

 

Leader/06

NR

 

Physical form designator

 

007/00-01

NR

 

Completeness designator

 

008/16

NR

 

Acquisitions status designator

 

008/06

NR

 

Retention designator

 

008/12

NR

 

General lending info

 

 

NR

 

 

Service policy

008/20 (lending)

NR

 

General reproduction info

 

 

NR

 

 

Service policy

008/21 (repro)

NR

Summary Enumeration Sequence

 

 

 

R

 

Target sequence identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Primary enumeration

 

 

NR

 

Starting enumeration

 

1st level only

NR

Level C-1: Minimal copy level holdings (i.e., "Copies only")

ESN:MinimalCopyLevelHoldings

Description: Reports the specific location of each (full or partial) copy of a bibliographic item held by a site

Element

Subelement

Subelement

USMARC field/subfield

Repeatability

Item Identification

 

 

004

NR

Site Location

 

 

 

R

 

Target location identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Institution identifier

 

852 $a

NR

 

Location name

 

852 $b

NR

Copy Location

 

 

 

R

 

Target copy identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Call number

 

852 $h $i $j $k $l $m

NR

Bibliographic Unit

 

 

 

R

 

Target bib unit identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Type of unit designator

 

Leader/17 + presence of 865-878

NR

 

Type of part designator

 

Leader/06

NR

 

Physical form designator

 

007/00-01

NR

 

Completeness designator

 

008/16

NR

 

Acquisitions status designator

 

008/06

NR

 

Retention designator

 

008/12

NR

 

General lending info

 

 

NR

 

 

Service policy

008/20 (lending)

NR

 

General reproduction info

 

 

NR

 

 

Service policy

008/21 (repro)

NR

Summary Enumeration Sequence

 

 

 

R

 

Target sequence identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Primary enumeration

 

 

NR

 

Starting enumeration

 

1st level only

NR

 

 

 

 

 

Level C-2: Summary copy level holdings (i.e., summary holdings per copy)

ESN: SummaryCopyLevelHoldings

Description: Reports summary holdings for each copy held by a site

Element

Subelement

 

USMARC field/subfield

Repeatability

Item Identification

 

 

004

NR

Site Location

 

 

 

R

 

Target location identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Institution identifier

 

852 $a

NR

 

Location name

 

852 $b

NR

Copy Location

 

 

 

R

 

Target copy identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Call number

 

852 $h $i $j $k $l $m

NR

Bibliographic Unit

 

 

 

R

 

Target bib unit identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Type of unit designator

 

Leader/17 + presence of 865-878

NR

 

Type of part designator

 

Leader/06

NR

 

Physical form designator

 

007/00-01

NR

 

Completeness designator

 

008/16

NR

 

Acquisitions status designator

 

008/06

NR

 

Retention designator

 

008/12

NR

 

General lending info

 

 

NR

 

 

Service policy

008/20 (lending)

NR

 

General reproduction info

 

 

NR

 

 

Service policy

008/21 (repro)

NR

Summary Enumeration Sequence

 

 

 

R

 

Target sequence identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Primary enumeration

 

 

NR

 

Starting enumeration

 

1st level only

NR

Physical Unit

 

 

 

R

 

Target physical unit identifier

 

n/a

NR

Level C-4: Extended copy level holdings (i.e., detailed holdings with circulation information)

ESN: Extended CopyLevelHoldings

Description: Reports detailed holdings for each copy along with circulation information on the copy held by a site

Element

Subelement

 

USMARC field/subfield

Repeatability

Item Identification

 

 

004

NR

Site Location

 

 

 

R

 

Target location identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Institution identifier

 

852 $a

NR

 

Location name

 

852 $b

NR

Copy Location

 

 

 

R

 

Target copy identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Call number

 

852 $h $i $j $k $l $m

NR

Bibliographic Unit

 

 

 

R

 

Target bib unit identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Type of unit designator

 

Leader/17 + presence of 865-878

NR

 

Type of part designator

 

Leader/06

NR

 

Physical form designator

 

007/00-01

NR

 

Completeness designator

 

008/16

NR

 

Acquisitions status designator

 

008/06

NR

 

Retention designator

 

008/12

NR

 

General lending info

 

 

NR

 

 

Service policy

008/20 (lending)

NR

 

General reproduction info

 

 

NR

 

 

Service policy

008/21 (repro)

NR

Physical Unit

 

 

 

R

 

Target physical unit identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Specific lending info

 

 

NR

 

Specific reproduction info

 

 

NR

Piece

 

 

 

R

 

Target piece identifier

 

n/a

NR

 

Circulation status

 

ISO 8459-4 and not 876-878 $j

NR

6.0    Conclusion

Z39.50 now has a mechanism in the OPAC/Holdings Schema to standardize the retrieval of holdings information across multiple databases.  While it allows Version 2 Z-clients and Z-servers to use this Schema, it does raise the requirement that they must support GRS-1.  The Z Texas Profile, in its attempt to lay a technical foundation for statewide information sharing, will break new ground by profiling the use of the OPAC/Holding Schema.  It is a wise decision and may lead to an appreciation of Z39.50 utility within the state's library community.


References

International Organization for Standardization.  (1997).  ISO 10324: Information and documentation -- Holdings statements -- Summary level.

St-Gelais, Rolande.  (1999, March 10). OPAC/Holdings schema: Definitions and Examples. Third draft -- March 10, 1999).  Available: <http://www.collectionscanada.ca/iso/z3950/archives/holds7.htm>.

St-Gelais, Rolande & Data Research Associates, Inc. (1997, August 15).  DRA information: Holdings retrieval using GRS-1 and OPAC.  St. Louis, MO: Data Research Associates. 

Zeeman, Johan & Turner, Fay. (1997, April 2).  Use of Z39.50 to access distributed union catalogues: Discussion paper. Available: <http://www.collectionscanada.ca/iso/z3950/archives/holds.htm>.


Appendix A

Selected Definitions of OPAC/Holdings Schema Elements

The following extracts from St-Gelais, Rolande a selected set of elements for which definitions are provided. These elements correspond to the elements required in the several Element Set Names (and associated reporting levels) proposed for use in the Z Texas Profile.  For a complete list of elements, their definitions, and the controlled values for some of the elements, please see the original document.

 

bibItemIdentifier:

This element uniquely identifies the bibliographic item for which holdings are being reported. May be a local bibliographic record number, ISSN, ISBN, etc. Corresponds to ISO and NISO Z39.71 "Item Identifier", unique element of the "Item Identification Area".

siteLocation:

Identifies the physical site for which the holdings statement applies. (See ‘Site Location’).

targetLocationId:

The server’s internal identifier for this physical site.

institutionId:

The person, library, organization, consortium or physical site holding the item or from which access is given. May or may not be an authoritative code. When authoritative, the source for the institution code should conform to the specified country’s Symbols of Libraries or similar definitions.

locationName:

Indicates the complete name of the physical site, i.e. name of institution followed, optionally, by the name(s) of one or many of its sub-divisions.

bibUnit:

Identifies and describes the bibliographic unit, in terms of its type of unit (basic, supplement, index), physical form, status of acquisition, completeness, etc. (c.f. ‘Bib Unit’).

targetBibUnitId:

The server’s internal identifier for this bibliographic unit.

typeOfUnitDesignator:

Specifies the type of bibliographic unit, i.e. whether it is a basic, a supplement or an index unit. Code values appear in Table-4.

typeOfPartDesignator:

Qualifies the type of physical part(s) making up the bibliographic unit, i.e. single-part unit, multipart unit or serial part unit. Code values appear in Table-4. Not part of ISO.

physicalFormDesignator:

Specifies the physical medium or type of material of the bibliographic unit. Code values appear in Table-4.

completenessDesignator:

Indicates how much of the published part of a serial unit or multipart unit is held by an institution. Table-4 lists possible code values.

acquisitionStatusDesignator:

Indicates whether a bibliographic unit has been or will be acquired by the reporting institution. Eligible values appear in Table-4.

retentionDesignator:

Indicates the period for which the bibliographic units are held by the reporting institution. Code values appear in Table-4.

reproductionNote:

Contains information about a reproduced item or unit that differs from the original bibliographic description.

generalLendingInfo:

Provides a site’s external lending information for the bibliographic unit (with regards to Inter-Library Loans). General lending policy, fee, delivery delays and notes are part of the information provided (c.f. ‘Service Info’).

servicePolicy:

Indicates the reporting physical site’s external lending policy or reproduction policy for a bibliographic unit (general) or one of its physical unit (specific). Table-5 lists eligible values. More specific information about the lending and/or reproduction policies may also be provided in the ‘termsUseAndRepro’ element, defined above.

generalReproductionInfo:

Provides a site’s general guidelines for reproduction of all or portion of the bibliographic unit. General reproduction policy, fee, delivery delays and notes are part of the information provided (c.f. ‘Service Info’).

servicePolicy:

Indicates the reporting physical site’s external lending policy or reproduction policy for a bibliographic unit (general) or one of its physical unit (specific). Table-5 lists eligible values. More specific information about the lending and/or reproduction policies may also be provided in the ‘termsUseAndRepro’ element, defined above.

summaryEnums:

List of all the summary enumeration sequences that represent the current bibliographic holdings for the unit. Each summary enumeration sequence represents a portion of the bibliographic unit, enumerated at the highest level. (c.f. Summary Enum Sequence). Pertains especially to multi-part or serial units.

targetSequenceId:

The server’s internal identifier for this summary enumeration.

primaryEnum:

Provides the summary enumeration according to the primary numbering scheme of the bibliographic unit (c.f. Summary Enum).

startingEnum:

The starting enumeration of this sequence, listing the 1st level of enumeration of the bibliographic unit. (c.f. ‘Enumeration’).

copyLocation:

This element provides the physical location of a full or partial copy of the bib item within a site. (The location therefore indicates where a certain number of parts (physical units) of a specific copy reside and where this portion may be found).

targetCopyId:

The server’s internal identifier for identifying this specific copy.

callNumber:

Indicates the physical location of a bibliographic item or bibliographic unit in a collection and (usually) serves the purpose of a shelving designation. In terms of US-MARC for Holdings, a call number may take (non exhaustively) one of the following forms:

- an actual call number, i.e. a prefix, classification part, item part and suffix; (852 $k $h $i and $m)

- a shelving control number (852 $j)

- a shelving form of title (852 $l)

physicalUnit:

Identifies the specific physical part involved. (c.f. ‘Physical Unit’).

targetPhysUnitId:

The server’s internal identifier for this physical unit.

piece:

Provides the physical unit’s corresponding (single) circulating piece. (c.f ‘Piece’).

targetPieceId:

The server’s internal identifier for this piece (or circulating item).

circStatus:

Contains the circulation status of the piece. Table 7 enumerates the different values for circulation status.

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