Superseded by Profile Release 2.0

Z Texas Profile:

A Z39.50 Profile for Library Systems Applications in Texas

Release 1.0

DRAFT For Public Comment and Discussion

December 1, 1998

revised January 20, 1999

revised January 25, 1999

revised March 23, 1999

 

Prepared by

The Texas Z39.50 Implementors Group (TZIG)

&

William E. Moen, Ph.D.

wemoen@jove.acs.unt.edu

School of Library and Information Sciences

University of North Texas

Denton, TX 76203

March 23, 1999

Z39.50

Home | Implementation Resources

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to the Profile

2. The Z Texas Project

3. Functional Requirements

    3.1. Requirements for Release 1.0

        3.1.1. Requirements for Searching

        3.1.2. Requirements for Retrieval

        3.1.3. Other Requirements

            3.1.3.1. Holdings Information

            3.1.3.2.  Browsing Indexes

4. Z39.50 Specifications

    4.1. Protocol Version

    4.2. Z39.50 Objects

    4.3. Z39.50 Services

        4.3.1. Init

        4.3.2. Search

            4.3.2.1. Attribute Set

        4.3.3. Retrieval: Record Syntax

    4.4. Diagnostic Messages

    4.5. Conformance

        4.5.1. Functional Area A: Online Catalog Search and Retrieval

            4.5.1.1. Functional Area A: Level 1 Searching

            4.5.1.2. Functional Area A: Level 2 Searching

        4.5.2. Functional Area B: Retrieval of Bibliographic Holdings Information

5. References

 

Appendix A: Definitions of Requirements for Level 1 and Level 2 Searches

Appendix B: Z39.50 Commentary--Z39.50 Keyword Searching of Bibliographic Systems

Appendix C: Open Issues

Appendix D: Potential Areas of Future Profile Work and Identified Future Requirements


Z Texas Profile:

A Z39.50 Profile for Library Systems Applications in Texas

 

1. Introduction to the Profile

This document identifies a subset of specifications from the ANSI/NISO Z39.50 standard for use in Z39.50 client and server software (hereafter referred to Z-client and Z-server) to support interoperable search and retrieval among library catalogs. Z39.50 is also an International Standard ISO 23950. As explained in Section 2: The Z Texas Project, the Z Texas Profile is intended as an evolving set of specifications to address distributed search and retrieval of digital resources and to assist in resource sharing by Texas libraries.

This Profile has been developed by the Texas Z39.50 Implementors Group (TZIG), an a voluntary and informal association of interested Texas librarians representing academic, public, school, and special libraries, and Z39.50 product developers and vendors.   The TZIG has identified future work areas for Profile development, including additional requirements not addressed in this Profile release.  Appendix D contains an indication of the future work areas and additional requirements. Appendix C contains a list of open issues still needing resolution as of this draft of the Z Texas Profile, Release 1.0.

Release 1.0 of this Profile addresses the basic requirements identified and discussed in Section 3: Functional Requirements. Those requirements support basic search and retrieval between USMARC online library catalogs, and the retrieval of holdings information. The TZIG envisions future releases of this Profile to address other requirements such as search and retrieval from full-text databases, searching across other information resources such as museums, government, archives. etc. Such requirements will use features of Z39.50 not profiled in Release 1.0.

A key component of this Profile is to characterize the types of searching required by library users. To this end, the Profile defines specific searches and how the semantics of those searches will be expressed in the vocabulary of Z39.50.

The Z Texas Profile is intended to be aligned with the specifications being discussed for an international Z39.50 profile for  library systems applications. This Profile builds upon the experience of other profiling efforts addressing interoperability for library catalog searching and the development of virtual union catalogs. In particular, the following efforts informed the Z Texas Profile:

The structure of the Z Texas Profile is modular and allows the future specification of separate but compatible requirements for a range of applications useful to librarians and library patrons.  Release 1.0 specifies two Functional Areas:

  • Functional Area A for search and retrieval among USMARC online catalogs
  • Functional Area B for retrieval of bibliographic holdings information.

Z39.50 specifications and conformance requirements are detailed for each Functional Area.  Future functional areas that currently being considered include full-text database search and retrieval, item ordering, catalog update, etc.


 


2. The Z Texas Project

The Z Texas Project is an initiative to increase Z39.50 utility and effectiveness for Texas libraries and lay a foundation for future sharing of online, digital information resources. The TZIG has identified three Project goals:

  • To improve and broaden Texas citizens’ access to networked information resources in Texas and beyond.
  • To improve Texas librarians’ understanding of Z39.50 and their capability to acquire and set up Z39.50 Z-clients and Z-servers.
  • To establish one possible technical foundation for future sharing of the information assets of Texas.

The TZIG is developing the Z Texas Profile to reflect consensus on functional requirements for using Z39.50 and a set of Z39.50 specifications that can serve the State’s library communities. The Texas Profile can significantly improve Texas libraries’ use of Z39.50.


3. Functional Requirements

In developing the Profile, the TZIG first identified a set of functional requirements to be supported by Z39.50 implementations. The functional requirements will evolve over time as Texas Z39.50 implementors see new opportunities for distributed search and retrieval using Z39.50. For example, expanded use of the Generic Record Syntax (GRS-1) will be required to retrieve non-MARC information resources. This section identifies the functional requirements that informed specifications for Release 1.0 of the Profile.

3.1. Requirements for Release 1.0

The basic requirements for Release 1.0 focus on search and retrieval between online USMARC library catalogs. This reflects the makeup of the TZIG in Fall 1998; participants were primarily representatives from Texas libraries, and the requirements of this group are the basis of this Release. The following sections detail the requirements for searching and retrieval identified by the TZIG.

3.1.1. Requirements for Searching

The TZIG identified several categories of searching and developed requirements for two categories of searching in Release 1.0. Appendix A includes the Definitions of Requirements for Category 1 and Category 2 Searches. Category 1 can be considered a set of core searches, and Category 2 can be considered a superset of Category 1 searches with addition of more specialized searches (e.g. inclusion of call numbers). Other categories of searching may be defined in the future. Specific local systems may not support all types of searches defined for Release 1.0. The TZIG considers these searches, however, to provide basic functionality that all local systems should support.

Category 1 searches include common author, title, subject searches that might be used by patrons and librarians. The following summarizes Category 1 searching requirements:

  • Author searches include both authorized name headings and non-authorized names
  • Title searches include full title exact match as well as keyword and phrase searching of titles
  • Subject searches include exact match of complete subject heading as well as searches for a word or group of words in subject fields
  • Keyword searches against author, title, subject, and other common access points (see Appendix B for Commentary on Keyword Searching of Bibliographic Systems)
  • Support for Boolean searching using AND, OR, NOT
  • Support for right truncation of search terms.

Category 2 searches include all Category 1 searches and more specialized requirements of patrons and librarians (e.g., catalogers, bibliographers, acquisitions, etc.). The following summarizes Category 2 searching requirements:

  • Inherit all requirements from Category 1 searching
  • Support for standard number searching
  • Support for call number searching
  • Support for searching based on date, format, language, and audience
  • Support for proximity searching.

Category 1 and Category 2 support common online catalog searching activities. By specifying two categories of searching, the TZIG indicates its goal to lower libraries' entry barriers for implementing Z39.50 while safeguarding interoperability.

Many OPACs currently allow users to browse indexes.  This is a useful feature, often used in conjunction with known item searching. Browse-based searching would assist users in improving their searching.  Such browse-based searching could be seen as an alternative searching strategy for Category 1 and 2.  See 3.1.3.2, Browsing Indexes.  

3.1.2. Requirements for Retrieval

Release 1.0 addresses retrieval of bibliographic records from USMARC online databases. This implies very basic retrieval requirements, namely Z-servers must return brief and/or full forms of bibliographic records in USMARC format.  The TZIG is aware, however, that librarians and other users are interested in accessing more than bibliographic data. Such access will require other structures for retrieval likely to be accommodated through the Z39.50 record syntax, Generic Record Syntax (GRS-1).  Release 1.0 specifies the retrieval of holdings information using the OPAC/Holdings Schema, which requires support for GRS-1(see 3.1.3.1.) .

3.1.3. Other Requirements

The TZIG focused its initial attention for Z39.50 specifications on searching, but it recognizes other important requirements. Of particular interest in Release 1.0 is to address the retrieval and display of holdings information. See Appendix D for other areas of potential development and specification.

3.1.3.1. Holdings Information

Identifying which collections contain certain information resources is a key factor in creating an infrastructure for resource sharing among libraries.  Librarians require holdings information for resource sharing, and patrons need similar holdings information for knowing where to go to use a resource.  The holdings information should provide sufficient identification and description of an item to give the user adequate information to make a decisions about requesting or retrieving the item.

3.1.3.2.  Browsing Indexes

Librarians and patrons often use a browse function on a local system to identify appropriate search terms to put in a query.  Searching term lists (or indexes) can enhance known-item searching.  Browsing indexes is a requirement for the Z39.50 implementations.

 


4. Z39.50 Specifications

This section identifies the Z39.50 specifications to support the functional requirements identified in Section 3.

4.1. Protocol Version

The Profile addresses requirements related to Version 2 and Version 3 of Z39.50-1995.  All implementations are encouraged to use Version 3, but in the short-term, conformance to certain specifications prescribed by this Profile is available to Version 2 implementations.  Section 4.5 details specific requirements for conformance for each of the Versions.

4.2. Z39.50 Objects

The Profile addresses the following Z39.50 objects by reference to registered Object Identifiers (OIDs). For information on Z39.50 OIDs, see Z39.50 Maintenance Agency.

Object

OID

Bib-1 attribute set

1.2.840.10003.3.1

Bib-1 diagnostic set

1.2.840.10003.4.1

USMARC record syntax

1.2.840.10003.5.10

GRS-1 record syntax

1.2.840.10003.5.105

OPACS/Holdings Schema

[to be assigned]

 

4.3. Z39.50 Services

The Profile specifies the use of a number of  Z39.50 services:

  • Init
  • Search
  • Present
  • Scan

See 4.5 Conformance.  No additional services are required for conformance to this Profile. Z-clients and Z-servers optionally may use other Z39.50 services. 

Standard Z39.50 Init Service negotiation procedures control the use of all services.

4.3.1. Init

Z-clients supporting this Profile may use the IDAuthentication parameters to transmit authentication information (e.g., userid and password). Z-servers supporting this Profile may or may not require authentication. The Profile specifies no other security requirements.

4.3.2. Search

The Profile requires Z-clients and Z-servers to support Z39.50 Type 1 queries (i.e., general purpose Boolean query structures).

4.3.2.1. Attribute Set

The Profile requires Z-clients and Z-servers to support the Bib-1 Attribute Set (i.e., process requests and responses that contain the OID for Bib-1). Semantics for Bib-1 attributes can be found in Attribute Set Bib-1 (Z39.50-1995): Semantics (September 1995).

Conformant Z-servers will support selected Use Attribute values according to Section 4.5. Conformance. "Support" in this context means:

  • Z-clients must be able to transmit all of the specified attribute combinations in query strings, to request the specified services with relevant parameters and to accept the corresponding relevant responses from Z-servers including specified record syntaxes
  • Z-servers must be able to receive all of the specified request types including attribute combinations and to return

    the corresponding relevant responses to the Z-client including specified record syntaxes. All of the specified attribute

    combinations must be supported by a Z-server, if they are relevant in the context of the corresponding databases.
  • Recognize the Bib-l OID
  • Recognize the Bib-1 Use Attribute value(s) listed for a conformance level,
  • Process searches using Use Attribute value(s) listed for a conformance level to produce a valid result set (which could contain 0 hits).

This implies that all implementations supporting this Profile must have search capabilities for Use Attribute values listed in each Functional Area for which conformance is claimed (see Section 4.5: Conformance). Z-servers may support additional attributes Bib-1 or other Z39.50 Attribute Sets.

4.3.3. Retrieval: Record Syntax

Z-clients and Z-servers must support the USMARC Record Syntax to enable the basic interchange of bibliographic records.

For retrieval of bibliographic holdings information, Z-clients and Z-servers must also support the Generic Record Syntax (GRS-1).

Z-clients and Z-servers may support other Z39.50 record syntaxes.  See 4.5 Conformance for specific requirements regarding record syntaxes.

4.4. Diagnostic Messages

The Profile requires support for Diagnostic Set Bib-1 and Z-servers will return appropriate diagnostics. Z-clients should neither display the Diagnostic Error Number or associated diagnostic error text from the standard to users. Instead, Z-client implementors should translate these technical error messages into meaningful messages for display to users.

4.5. Conformance

The Z Texas Profile will evolve to incorporate a range of functionality for distributed search and retrieval. To provide a modular approach to profile development, the notion of functional area is used to group similar requirements and Z39.50 specifications. Z-clients and Z-servers may claim conformance to one or more functional areas and be in compliance with this Profile. Requirements and specifications for each functional area are compatible. While functional areas will differ as to their focal concern, it is likely that conformance to certain functional areas will specify conformance to other functional areas (i.e., to support a particular functional area may require conformance to one or more other functional areas).

This section identifies Z39.50 specifications Z-clients and Z-servers must support to claim conformance for each of the functional areas.

Release 1.0 specifies conformance for:

  • Functional Area A for search and retrieval among USMARC online catalogs
    • Category 1 Searching
    • Category 2 Searching
  • Functional Area B for retrieval of bibliographic holdings information.

Because of the goals, objectives, and detailed specification of this Profile, Z-clients and Z-servers are precluded from "default" behavior (e.g., Z-clients should form queries using all attribute types and values identifies, and Z-servers should not attempt to "reinterpret" a query because of limits on its search functionality).

4.5.1. Functional Area A: Online Catalog Search and Retrieval

Functional Area A addresses the requirements of basic search and retrieval among and between bibliographic and related databases of USMARC online catalogs. Release 1.0 specifies two categories of searching within this functional area.

Functional Area A requires support of the following:

Z39.50 Objects:

Object

OID

Z-client

Z-server

Bib-1 attribute set

1.2.840.10003.3.1

X

X

Bib-1 diagnostic set

1.2.840.10003.4.1

X

X

USMARC record syntax

1.2.840.10003.5.10

X

X

 

4.5.1.1. Functional Area A: Category 1 Searching

Conformance with Category 1 Searching enables basic Author, Title, and Subject searching from the perspective of patrons and librarians.   Version 2 is required, Version 3 is recommended.

Category 1 Searching requires support of the following Bib-1 Use Attributes:

Bib-1 Use Attributes:

Use Attribute Value

Name

4

title

5

title series

6

title uniform

21

subject heading

1003

author

1016

any

These Use Attributes are combined with other Attribute Types to express the semantics of seven Category 1 Searches.  

No default behavior (by Z-clients or Z-servers) is addressed by this Profile. The Profile requires that Z-clients formulate queries using all the specified attribute types and values (below), and the Profile requires Z-servers to process all of the attribute types (i.e., do not ignore any attribute types or values). Z-servers that do no support specific attribute types and values must return a diagnostic.

All keyword searches are formulated according to the ZIG Commentary, a copy of which is in Appendix B. For all keyword searches using more than a single-word search term, Z-clients must formulate a multi-term keyword query by using a Boolean AND.

Z-clients and Z-servers may enhance their support of Category 1 Searching by employing the Z39.50 Scan service, and the following specifications include the use of Scan as an alternative to the exact match searches (Searches 1, 3, and 5).  Z-clients and Z-servers will negotiate the use of Scan in Init.

 

1. Author Search -- Authorized Name Heading

Definition: Searches for an exact match beginning with first character for a name or parts of a name of a person or entity responsible for a particular work with right truncation. Assumes name is in some authorized form (e.g., established according to AACR2). Z-client should formulate authorized personal name query using the format:

<last name first><comma><rest of name>. Z-servers should assume when receiving a query with Structure "normalized" that the Z-client is sending a search term that has been pre-processed and expects the Z-server to treat the search term as such.

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Names

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

1003

author

100, 110, 111, 400, 410, 411, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, 811

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1, 2

first in field, first in subfield

 

Structure (4)

101

normalized

 

Truncation (5)

1

right truncation

 

Completeness (6)

1

incomplete subfield

 

1Alt. Scan of Author Index

Z-client will send a Scan request with that identifies the database, termlist, term, and step-size.  Termlist for this Scan is an author index.

 

2. Author Search -- Keyword

Definition: Searches for a word, words, character or group of characters in the name or parts of a name of a person or entity responsible for a particular work.

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Names

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

1003

author

100, 110, 111, 400, 410, 411, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, 811

Relation (2)

3 (or absent)

equal

 

Position (3)

3 (or absent)

any position in field

 

Structure (4)

2

word

 

Truncation (5)

*

*

 

Completeness (6)

1 (or absent)

incomplete subfield

 

* Absent or as supported by the Z-server for keyword searching

 

3. Title Search -- Exact

Definition: Searches for an exact match beginning with the first character of first word appearing in the title of an item (i.e., names the item or the work contained in it) or in the series title (i.e., collective title applying to a group of separate, but related, items) or with the uniform title. Right truncation.

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Names

USMARC Fields Indexes (Suggested)

Use (1)

4*, 5, 6

title, series, uniform

130, 21X-24X, 440, 490, 730, 740, 830 840, subfield $t in the following: 400, 410, 505, 600, 610, 611, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, 811

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1,2

first in field, first in subfield

 

Structure (4)

1,2

phrase, word**

 

Truncation (5)

1,100

right truncation, do not truncate

 

Completeness (6)

1,2,3

incomplete subfield, complete subfield, complete field

 

* Use attribute value 4 should be used when Z-client wants the Z-server to search any and all title indexes.

** If a single word title, Structure could be value = 2 (word)

3Alt. Title Search using Scan

Z-client will send a Scan request with that identifies the database, termlist, term, and step-size.  Termlist for this Scan is an title index.

 

4. Title Search -- For Keyword title searches using multiple search terms, queries are not limited to matching both terms in the same field.

Definition: Searches for a word, words, character or group of characters in the title of an item.

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Names

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

4, 5, 6

title, series, uniform

130, 21X-24X, 440, 490, 730, 740, 830 840, subfield $t in the following: 400, 410, 505, 600, 610, 611, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, 811

Relation (2)

3 (or absent)

equal

 

Position (3)

3 (or absent)

any position in field

 

Structure (4)

2

word

 

Truncation (5)

*

*

 

Completeness (6)

1 (or absent)

incomplete subfield

 

* Absent or as supported by the Z-server for keyword searching

 

5. Subject Search (where search term is complete subject heading or complete component part of a subject heading but does not specify from which authoritative subject heading list).  The search term should be matched at the complete subfield level (i.e., truncation should be applied to component parts of the subject heading rather than at a word level within a component part).

Definition: Searches for an exact match beginning with the first character for a word or group of words in the subject fields with right truncation

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Names

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

21

subject heading

6XX

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1

first in field

 

Structure (4)

1,2

phrase, word

 

Truncation (5)

1

right truncation

 

Completeness (6)

1

incomplete subfield

 

5Alt. Subject Search using Scan

Z-client will send a Scan request with that identifies the database, termlist, term, and step-size.  Termlist for this Scan is an subject index.

 

6. Subject Search -- Keyword

Definition: Searches for a word, words, character or group of characters in the subject of an item

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Name

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

21

subject heading

6XX

Relation (2)

3 (or absent)

equal

 

Position (3)

3 (or absent)

any position in field

 

Structure (4)

2

word

 

Truncation (5)

*

*

 

Completeness (6)

1 (or absent)

incomplete subfield

 

* Absent or as supported by the Z-server for keyword searching

 

7. Single Keyword Search Against Common (Z-server-defined) Access Points

Definition: Searches for a word, words, character or group of characters in fields that are commonly used as access points, as defined by the Z-server.

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Name

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

1016

any

1XX, 2XX, 4XX, 5XX, 6XX, 7XX, 8XX

Relation (2)

3 (or absent)

equal

 

Position (3)

3 (or absent)

any position in field

 

Structure (4)

2

word

 

Truncation (5)

*

*

 

Completeness (6)

1 (or absent)

incomplete field

 

* Absent or as supported by the Z-server for keyword searching

 

4.5.1.2. Functional Area A: Category 2 Searching

Conformance with Category 2 Searching requires support for all Category 1 searches and support for more specialized searches used by both patrons and librarians. Version 2 is required, Version 3 is recommended. 

Category 2 Searching requires support of the following Bib-1 Use Attributes:

Bib-1 Use Attributes:

Use Attribute Value

Name

4*

title

5*

title series

6*

title uniform

7

ISBN

8

ISSN

12

local number

13

Dewey classification

16

LC call number

21*

subject heading

25

MESH subject

27

LC subject heading

31

date of publication

50

no. govt. pub.

54

Code-language

60

CODEN

63

notes

1003*

author

1007

identifier--standard

1016*

any

1031

material-type

1035

anywhere

* Use Attributes for Level 1 searching

 

Category 2 defines searches expressed by the semantics of the following:

1. Local Control Number

Definition: Searches a character string that uniquely identifies a record in a local library catalog.

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Names

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

12

local number

001, 019, 035

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1

first in field

 

Structure (4)

1

phrase

 

Truncation (5)

100

do not truncate

 

Completeness (6)

3

complete field

 

 

2. Standard Numbers/Identifiers

Definition: Searches standard numbers such as ISBN, ISSN, Music Standard numbers, CODEN, Superintendent of Documents Item Number, etc., that are indexed together in many online public-access catalog.

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Names

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

7,8,50, 60. 1007

ISBN, ISSN, no. govt. pub.,CODEN, music publisher number

010, 011, 015, 017, 018, 020, 022, 023, 024, 025, 027, 028, 030, 035, 037,074

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1

first in field

 

Structure (4)

1

phrase

 

Truncation (5)

100

do not truncate

 

Completeness (6)

1

incomplete subfield

 

 

3. Call Number (Classification Number) Search

Definition: Searches for an exact match on a classification number including LC call numbers and Dewey call numbers, and searches for a character-by-character match on a classification number with right truncation.

Attribute Type

Attribute Values

Attribute Names

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

16,13*

LC Call Number, Dewey Classification,

050, 060, 070, 080, 082, 086, 09X, 852

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1

first in field

 

Structure (4)

108

string

 

Truncation (5)

1

right truncation

 

Completeness (6)

1

incomplete subfield

 

* Z-servers will support at least one of these Use attribute values, depending on the classification system used in the collection. For the non-supported attribute value, Z-servers must return a diagnostic.

 

4. Controlled Vocabulary Search

Definition: Searches for exact match on a user specified subject heading entry including controlled vocabularies: LC, MESH, LCAC (i.e. the user selects the controlled vocabulary to be searched).

Attribute Type

Attribute Value

Attribute Name

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

27,25,1008

LC subject heading, MESH subject, Subject-LC children's

600,610,611,630, 650,651

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1

first in field

 

Structure (4)

1

phrase

 

Truncation (5)

100

do not truncate

 

Completeness (6)

2,3

complete subfield*, complete field**

 

* Complete subfield would be used when one is searching for a main subject heading (.e.g., American literature)

** Complete field would be used when one is searching for a subject heading comprised of a main and sub-heading (e.g., American literature - 19th century).

 

5. Date of Publication Search

Definition: Searches for the date (usually year) in which an item is published.

Attribute Type

Attribute Value

Attribute Name

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

31

date of publication

008/07-10, 260$c, 046, 533$d

Relation (2)

1,3,5

less than, equal, greater than

 

Position (3)

1

first in field

 

Structure (4)

4

year

 

Truncation (5)

100

do not truncate

 

Completeness (6)

2

complete subfield

 

 

6. Format-Material Type Search

Definition: Searches for words that describe the material type of an item (i.e., computer file, sound recording, cassette)

Attribute Type

Attribute Value

Attribute Name

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

1031

material-type

Derived value from Leader/06-07, 007, 008, 245h, and 502

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1

first in field

 

Structure (4)

1,2

phrase, word

 

Truncation (5)

100

do not truncate

 

Completeness (6)

2

complete subfield

 

 

7. Language Search

Definition: Searches for a code that indicates the language

Attribute Type

Attribute Value

Attribute Name

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

54

Code--language

008/35-37, 041

Relation (2)

3

equal

 

Position (3)

1

first in field

 

Structure (4)

2

word

 

Truncation (5)

100

do not truncate

 

Completeness (6)

1

incomplete subfield

 

of the item.

 

 

8. Keyword Notes Search (where search term is a single word to be matched against indexed notes fields :

Definition: Searches for a word to be matched against words from notes fields.

Attribute Type

Attribute Value

Attribute Name

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

63

notes

5xx

Relation (2)

3 (or absent)

equal

 

Position (3)

3 (or absent)

any position in field

 

Structure (4)

2

word

 

Truncation (5)

absent or as supported by the Z-server for keyword searching

 

 

Completeness (6)

1 (or absent)

incomplete field

 

 

9. Keyword Search in Record

Definition: Searches for a word to be matched against all words in a record.

Attribute Type

Attribute Value

Attribute Name

USMARC Fields Indexed (Suggested)

Use (1)

1035

anywhere

 

Relation (2)

3 (or absent)

equal

 

Position (3)

3 (or absent)

any position in field

 

Structure (4)

2

word

 

Truncation (5)

absent or as supported by the Z-server for keyword searching

 

 

Completeness (6)

1 (or absent)

incomplete field

 

 

Other Level 2 searches are expressed as follows:

Author/Title Combination can be expressed as a Boolean search for author keyword and title keyword connected by a Boolean AND.

 

4.5.2. Functional Area B: Retrieval of Bibliographic Holdings Information

Functional Area B addresses the requirements for requesting and delivering bibliographic holdings information.  To accommodate this need, Z-clients and Z-servers area required to support the OPACs/Holdings Schema and Generic Record Syntax (GRS).  Version 2 is required and Version 3 is recommended.  

Functional Area B requires support of the following:

Z39.50 Objects:

Object

OID

Z-client

Z-server

OPAC/Holdings Schema

[to be assigned]

X

X

Bib-1 diagnostic set

1.2.840.10003.4.1

X

X

Generic Record Syntax (GRS-1)

1.2.840.10003.5.105

X

X

 

From the OPAC/Holding Schema Z-clients and Z-servers will support the following holdings information reporting levels:

  • Bibliographic Level Holdings
    • Level B-1: Minimal bibliographic level holdings (i.e., "Location only")
    • Level B-2: Summary bibliographic level holdings (i.e., non copy-specific summary holdings)
  • Copy Level Holdings
    • Level C-1: Minimal copy level holdings (i.e., "Copies only")
    • Level C-2: Summary copy level holdings (i.e., summary holdings per copy)
    • Level C-4: Extended copy level holdings (i.e., detailed holdings with circulation information)

Each of these reporting levels is identified with an Element Set Name (ESN), and Version 2 Z-clients must use one of the following ESNs when requesting these holdings levels at the various reporting levels:

  • Level B-1: ESN = MinimalBibliographicLevelHoldings
  • Level B-2: ESN = SummaryBibliographicLevelHoldings
  • Level C-1: ESN = MinimalCopyLevelHoldings
  • Level C-2: ESN = SummaryCopyLevelHoldings
  • Level C-4: ESN = ExtendedCopyLevelHoldings

For additional information, see the OPAC/Holdings Schema.


5. References

Danish Z39.50 Implementers Group.   (1999, March 4).  DanZIG Z39.50 Profile.  Available: <http://www.bs.dk/danzig/profil.htm>

Lunau, Carrol D. and Zeeman, Joe. (1998, October 15). Z39.50 Basic Searching of Bibliographic Systems: A Discussion Document.

MODELS Library Interoperability Profile Family.    Available: <http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/dlis/models/clumps/technical/zprofile/zprofile.htm>

National Information Standards Organization. (1995). ANSI/NISO Z3950-1995. Information Retrieval (Z39.50): Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification. Bethesda, MD: NISO Press. Electronic version of Z39.50 available at the Z39.50 Maintenance Agency.   Available:  <http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency>.

National Library of Canada. (1998, January 26). Virtual Union Catalogue Z39.50 Profile, Draft Version 1.5.  Available: <http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/resource/vcuc/profil4.htm>

Husby, Ole. (1997, January 9). BIB-1 profile for ONE   Available: <http://www.bibsys.no/one-wg/bib-1.profile.html>

St-Gelais, Rolande. (1999, March 10). OPAC/Holdings Schema: Definitions and Examples.  Available: <http://www.collectionscanada.ca/iso/z3950/archives/holds7.htm>

Z39.50 Maintenance Agency. Available: <http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency>.

Z39.50 Maintenance Agency. ATS-1 Profile. Available: <http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency/profiles/ats.html>.

Z39.50 Maintenance Agency (1995, September). Attribute Set Bib-1 (Z39.50-1995): Semantics. Available: <ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/z3950/defs/bib1.txt>.

Z39.50 Maintenance Agency. (1998, June). Bib-1 Attribute Set Available: <http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency/defns/bib1.html >

 


Appendix A

Definitions of Requirements for Category 1 and Category 2 Searches

Three categories of searching are identified, Category 1, 2, and 3.

Category 1 focuses on author, title, and subject searches for both Patrons and Librarians. Category 2 includes more specialized searches that can be used by both Patrons and Librarians. Both Category 1 and 2 are specified in Release 1.0 of this Profile.

Category 3 is not specified Release 1.0, but may be developed in subsequent releases of the Profile. Category 3 can be considered a set of searches by particular groups for specific resources (e.g., to support searching of archives).

Category 1

Category 2

Category 3

Author

Standard Numbers

Publisher Name

Title

Author/Title Combination

Acquisition Date (Archives)

Subject

Call Number (SuDoc, LC)

Form/Genre (Archives)

Keyword

Normalized Name/Subject

Function (Archives)

Boolean

Controlled Vocabulary

Left Truncation

Right Truncation

Date (including Range of Dates)

Embedded Truncation

 

Audience

 

 

Keyword – anywhere

 

 

Keyword – notes

 

 

Format

 

 

Language

 

 

Proximity Searching

 


 

 

The following tables define searches for each Category. USMARC fields (and associated indexes) that would be searched are suggested.

Category 1

Type of Search

Definition of Search

US MARC TAGs Searched

Z39.50 USE Attribute Value

Z39.50 USE Attribute Name

Author

Searches for an exact match beginning with first character for a name or parts of a name of a person or entity responsible for a particular work with right truncation. Assumes name is in some authorized form (e.g., established according to AACR2).

100, 110, 111, 400, 410, 411, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, 811

1003

author

Author Keyword(s)

Searches for a word, words, character or group of characters in the name or parts of a name of a person or entity responsible for a particular work

100, 110, 111, 400, 410, 411, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, 811

1003

author

Title

Searches for an exact match beginning with the first character of first word appearing in the title of an item (i.e., names the item or the work contained in it) or in the series title (i.e., collective title applying to a group of separate, but related, items) or with the uniform title. Right truncation.

130, 21X-24X, 440, 490, 730, 740, 830 840, subfield $t in the following: 400, 410, 505, 600, 610, 611, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, 811

4, 5, 6

title, series, uniform

Title Keyword(s)

Searches for a word, words, character or group of characters in the title of an item.

130, 21X-24X, 440, 490, 730, 740, 830 840, subfield $t in the following: 400, 410, 505, 600, 610, 611, 700, 710, 711, 800, 810, 811

4, 5, 6

title, series, uniform

Subject

Searches for an exact match beginning with the first character for a word or group of words in the subject fields with right truncation

6XX

21

subject

Subject Keyword(s)

Searches for a word, words, character or group of characters in the subject of an item

6XX

21

subject

Single Keyword Search Against Common Access Points

Searches for a word, words, character or group of characters in fields that are commonly used as access points, as defined by the Z-server.

1XX, 2XX, 4XX, 5XX, 6XX, 7XX, 8XX

1016

any

Boolean

Allows searcher to express the relationship between the multiple search terms using Boolean expressions (AND, OR, NOT)

N/A

 

 

Right Truncation

Removal of one or more character on the right side a search term, or substitution of a special character to allow for a search of all variations of ending of the term (i.e., politic* will retrieve politics, politician, political, etc.).

N/A

 

 


 

 

 

Category 2

Type of Search

Definition of Search

US MARC TAGs Searched

Z39.50 USE Attribute Value

Z39.50 USE Attribute Name

Local Control Number

Searches a character string that uniquely identifies a record in a local library catalog.

001, 019, 035

12

local number

Standard Numbers/Identifiers

Searches standard numbers such as ISBN, ISSN, Music Standard numbers, CODEN, Superintendent of Documents Item Number, etc., that are indexed together in many online public-access catalog.

010, 011, 015, 017, 018, 020, 022, 023, 024, 025, 027, 028, 030, 035, 037,074

7,8,50, 60, 1007

ISBN, ISSN, no. govt. pub.,CODEN, music publisher number

Author/Title Combination

Searches for the author and the title of an item. This may be accomplished with an author and title search from Category 1.

 

 

 

Call Number (LC, Dewey)

Searches for an exact match on a classification number including LC call numbers and Dewey call numbers, and searches for a character-by-character match on a classification number with right truncation.

050, 060, 070, 080, 082, 086, 09X, 852

16, 13

LC Call Number, Dewey Classification,

Controlled Vocabulary

Searches for exact match on a user specified subject heading entry including controlled vocabularies: LC, MESH, LCAC (i.e. the user selects the controlled vocabulary to be searched).

600,610,611,630, 650,651

27, 25, 1008

LC subject heading, MESH subject, Subject-LC children's*

Date - publication

Searches for the date (usually year) in which an item is published.

008/07-10, 260$c, 046, 533$d

31

date of publication

Format - Material type

Searches for words that describe the material type of an item (i.e., computer file, sound recording, cassette)

Derived value from Leader/06-07, 007, 008, 245h, and 502

1031

material-type

Language

Searches for a code that indicates the language of the item.

008/35-37, 041

54

Code-language

Keyword - notes

Searches for a word to be matched against words from notes fields.

5xx

63

notes

Keyword – anywhere in record

Searches for a word to be matched against all words in a record.

 

1035

anywhere

Proximity Searching

Searches for words that are adjacent, near, within the same MARC field, or have other spatial relationships (i.e., ADJ, NEAR, W/N)

 

 

 


 

 

An "Audience" search was defined as desirable: Searches for the intended user group of the material or the audience for which the material was produced (reading level, juvenile, young adult, adult, ESL, profession, educational level, etc.). [008]. Z39.50 cannot presently express this search. However, a keyword notes search may provide assist the user.

 


Appendix B

ZIG Commentary

Z39.50 Keyword Searching of Bibliographic Systems

 

Issue raised by: Fay Turner

Synopsis:

Keyword searching of bibliographic systems is useful when neither the exact author, title or subject of an item is known, or when the objective of the search is to identify a broad range of documents to which the keywords apply. Characteristics of keyword searching include:
 

  • Searching one or more words that do not have to be in any order.
  • Searching for words anywhere in some or all fields indexed for the record, usually in author, title, subject and sometimes notes fields.
  • Limiting the search, for example, by author, subject, title, format, language, publisher or date.
  • Combining several keywords using Boolean and positional operators and expressing the relationship between the keywords: AND, OR, AND-NOT, exclusive-or, adjacent, near, with, same, etc.
  • Nesting searches to construct complex searches, truncation of terms, etc.
     

Many bibliographic systems support some or all of these features.

What combination of bib-1 attributes should be used to specify a keyword search?
 

Response:

For bibliographic system searching, queries where all operands are constructed as follows are to be interpreted as keyword searches:

  • Position: any-position-in-field (3) or absent
  • Relation: equal (3) or absent
  • Completeness: incomplete-field (1) or absent
  • Structure: word (2)
  • Truncation: absent or as supported by the Z-server for keyword searching
  • Use: as supported by the Z-server for keyword searching (including ANY, if supported).
  • Term: a single word

Appendix C

Open Issues

At the time of this draft of the Z Texas Profile, Release 1.0 (07/05/99), the following items and issues were still outstanding:

 

1.     Following the January 25, 1999 draft of Release 1.0, the TZIG meeting on Feb 19 decided to include requirements for Holdings Information to be addressed by Release 1.0.  The exact level of Holdings information is under discussion, but this draft of Release 1.0 profiles the use of the OPACS/Holdings Schema.  We need to agree to some set of holdings data to be returned.  

2.     We may need to identify which additional requirements apply to Z-client and which to Z-server. For example, we could say that indicating truncation is optional for Z-client (default is Do Not Truncate), but that Z-servers must support truncation? But then we run up against differences in local systems functionality.


Appendix D

Potential Areas of Future Profile Work and Identified Future Requirements

Future/additional requirements for Z-client and Z-server to be developed in future releases of the Z-Texas Profile:

1. Full-text database searching and retrieval

2. Item ordering and interlibrary loan

3. Catalog updating

4.  Extended services

Return to Committee-Created Documents Table of Contents

Page last modified: April 29, 2014