PART II: SURVEY REPORT

APPENDIX C: Analysis By LIBRARIES' OPERATING EXPENDITURES

Libraries were classified into three groups based on the size of their operating expenditures. Libraries' operating expenditures ranged from $7,608 (bottom five percent of libraries) to $37,152,254. Libraries were classified into:

  • Small: libraries with operating expenditures up to $50,000.
  • Medium: libraries with operating expenditures ranging from $50,000 to under $150,000.
  • Large: libraries with operating expenditures of $150,000 or more

Data were available for 417 libraries. Thirty-one percent of the libraries had small operating expenditures, 35 percent of the libraries had medium operating expenditures, and 34 percent of the libraries had large operating expenditures.

Table C.1

Operating Expenditures

Number of Libraries

Percent of Libraries

Small

130

31.2%

Medium

147

35.3%

Large

140

33.6%

Figure C.1

Graph of operating expenditures in the table above

BCLS (54 percent) and HALS (49 percent) had the largest percent of libraries with small operating expenditures. NTRLS (47 percent) and HALS (46 percent) had the largest percent of libraries with large operating expenditures.

Table C.2


Operating Expenditures

Library Systems

Number of Libraries

Small (N=130)

Medium (N=147)

Large (N=140)

#

%

#

%

#

%

BCLS

35

19

54.3%

12

34.3%

4

11.4%

TPLS

25

10

40.0%

9

36.0%

6

24.0%

CTLS

56

19

33.9%

17

30.3%

20

35.7%

STLS

31

6

19.3%

14

45.2%

11

35.5%

NETLS

78

22

28.2%

26

33.3%

30

38.5%

TTPLS

14

5

35.7%

6

42.8%

3

21.4%

NTRLS

60

11

18.3%

21

35.0%

28

46.7%

HALS

54

8

14.8%

21

38.9%

25

46.3%

WTLS

27

12

44.4%

11

40.7%

4

14.8%

AALS

37

18

48.6%

10

27.0%

9

24.3%

The majority of libraries with small (89 percent) and medium (83 percent) operating expenditures served primarily rural areas. Forty percent of the libraries with large operating expenditures also served primarily rural areas.

Table C.3


Operating Expenditures

Libraries' Primary Areas of Service

Small (N=130)

Medium (N=147)

Large (N=139)

#

%

#

%

#

%

Urban

3

2.3%

5

3.4%

29

20.9%

Suburban

9

6.9%

18

12.2%

48

34.5%

Rural

116

89.2%

122

83.0%

56

40.3%

Other

2

1.6%

2

1.4%

6

4.2%

1. Library Operations

Overall, libraries' operating expenditures were significantly associated with their automation status. Libraries with large operating expenditures were more advanced in their automation than libraries with smaller operating expenditures, as shown in the following table. Libraries' operating expenditures were also associated with having a long-range plan. 28 percent of libraries with small operating expenditures compared with 35 percent of the libraries with medium operating expenditures, and 48 percent of the libraries with large operating expenditures had long-range plans.

Table C.4


Operating Expenditures

Library Has

Small (N=130)

Medium (N=147)

Large (N=140)

#

%

#

%

#

%

Automated catalog and circulation system*

63

48.5%

116

78.9%

133

95.0%

Automated catalog available through the Internet*

23

17.7%

40

27.2%

99

70.7%

Automated circulation system that is available through the Internet*

12

9.2%

13

8.8%

51

36.4%

Internet connection*

121

93.1%

144

98.0%

140

100.0%

Library provides access to online databases to end users*

85

65.4%

114

77.6%

128

91.4%

Long-range plan*

37

28.5%

51

34.7%

67

47.9%

Long-range plan addresses future trends

31

83.8%

43

84.3%

51

76.1%

* Differences are statistically significant.

Regardless of the level of their operating expenditures, libraries collaborated regularly with other libraries. However, a larger percent of libraries with large operating expenditures (42 percent) than libraries with medium (15 percent) or small (nine percent) operating expenditures collaborated with academic libraries.

Table C.5


Operating Expenditures

Library Collaborated Regularly with:

Small (N=130)

Medium (N=147)

Large (N=140)

#

%

#

%

#

%

Public libraries

93

87.7%

116

85.9%

113

85.6%

School libraries

65

61.3%

82

60.7%

78

59.1%

Academic libraries

10

9.4%

20

14.8%

56

42.4%

Special libraries (law, medicine, engineering)

4

3.8%

2

1.5%

14

10.6%

Other types of libraries

1

0.9%

7

4.8%

12

8.6%

2. Library System Services Provided to Member libraries

Library Systems provided a wide range of services to all libraries regardless of the size of their operating expenditures. A larger percent of libraries with small operating expenditures received funds for installing or upgrading their Internet connections, getting training in and assistance with grant writing, and getting continuing education services for their advisory boards.

Table C.6


Operating Expenditures

Services Library Received From Library System

Small (N=130)

Medium (N=147)

Large (N=140)

#

%

#

%

#

%

Funds for collection development: books and other materials

126

96.9%

143

97.9%

140

100.0%

Funds for library video collection operation

44

33.8%

67

45.9%

66

47.1%

Funds for computers

46

35.4%

45

30.8%

51

36.4%

Funds for installing an Internet connection

27

20.8%

13

8.9%

14

10.0%

Funds for upgrading the library's Internet connection

16

12.3%

6

4.1%

6

4.3%

Training library staff in the management and use of electronic resources

109

83.8%

128

87.7%

122

87.1%

Training and helping library staff to write grants, assistance with grant writing

96

73.8%

94

64.4%

79

56.4%

Training library staff in the development of long-range plans

47

36.2%

58

39.7%

50

35.7%

Purchasing for the library (or assisting with the purchasing of) video and teleconferencing/distance learning equipment

8

6.2%

13

8.9%

12

8.6%

Purchasing and upgrading library's hardware and software

34

26.2%

36

24.7%

39

27.9%

Purchasing equipment for accessing electronic resources

19

14.6%

18

12.3%

13

9.3%

Purchasing office and other equipment for library

38

29.2%

43

29.5%

52

37.1%

Funding bilingual/ESL and literacy projects

20

15.4%

35

24.0%

37

26.4%

Funding projects serving youth

15

11.5%

25

17.1%

29

20.7%

Funding projects serving older adults

24

18.5%

46

31.5%

39

27.9%

Funding projects to serve people with disabilities

11

8.5%

30

20.5%

15

10.7%

Proving funds for planning projects

9

6.9%

10

6.8%

13

9.3%

Providing funds for library automation projects

16

12.3%

18

12.3%

14

10.0%

Assistance with reference questions

94

72.3%

121

82.9%

72

51.4%

Continuing education services for staff

124

95.4%

138

94.5%

136

97.1%

Continuing education services for library advisory board

54

41.5%

49

33.6%

47

33.6%

Consulting services

97

74.6%

117

80.1%

97

69.3%

3. Impact of Library System Services

On average, libraries with small operating expenditures considered their respective Library System more helpful in meeting their needs than libraries with medium or large operating expenditures. For example, 77 percent of libraries with small operating expenditures compared with 71 percent of libraries with medium operating expenditures, and 59 percent of libraries with small operating expenditures considered their Library Systems "very helpful."

Table C.7


Operating Expenditures

Helpfulness of Library System in Meeting Libraries' Needs*

Small (N=129)

Medium (N=146)

Large (N=138)

#

%

#

%

#

%

Very helpful

100

77.5%

104

71.2%

81

58.7%

Helpful

22

17.1%

32

21.9%

30

21.7%

Moderately helpful

6

4.7%

4

2.7%

17

12.3%

Of little help

--

--

5

3.4%

8

5.8%

Not at all helpful

--

--

1

0.7%

1

0.7%

Unsure

1

0.8%

--

--

1

0.7%

Mean**

1.26

 

1.40

 

1.67

 

* Chi-square=24.74, 10 d.f., p<.00586.


** Mean was calculated based on a 5-point scale where "1" referred to "very helpful" and "5" referred to "not at all helpful."

Figure C.2

Graph of Helpfulness of Library System in Meeting Libraries' Needs vs. Operating Expenditures. See long description.

The size of libraries' operating expenditures was also significantly associated with the improvements that libraries reported as a result of services their Library System had provided, as shown in the following tables. A larger percent of libraries with small operating expenditures compared with libraries with medium and large operating expenditures reported that the services they received from their respective Library Systems helped improve "to a great extent" their collection, technology, operations, management, planning, range and quality of services, and expansion of services to previously unserved populations.

Table C.8


Operating Expenditures

Services Provided by Library System Helped Improve to a Great Extent Library's*

Small (N=130)

Medium (N=147)

Large (N=140)

#

%

#

%

#

%

Collection

99

76.1%

101

68.7%

56

40.0%

Technology

68

52.3%

67

45.6%

44

31.4%

Operations

75

57.7%

62

42.2%

28

20.0%

Management

75

57.7%

66

44.9%

35

25.0%

Planning

65

50.0%

57

38.8%

41

29.3%

Range of service

59

45.4%

58

39.4%

38

27.1%

Quality of services

67

51.5%

67

45.6%

46

32.8%

Ability to serve individuals not served before

57

43.8%

54

36.7%

28

20.0%

* Differences are statistically significant.

Table C.9


Operating Expenditures

Services Provided by Library System Helped Improve Library's*

Small


Mean


Scores**

Medium


Mean


Scores**

Large


Mean


Scores**

Collection

1.22

1.32

1.85

Technology

1.54

1.71

2.17

Operations

1.46

1.70

2.29

Management

1.50

1.74

2.25

Planning

1.67

1.86

2.29

Range of service

1.69

1.83

2.25

Quality of services

1.55

1.70

2.04

Ability to serve individuals not served before

1.81

2.00

2.45

* Differences were statistically significant.


** Means were calculated on a 5-point scale where "1" refers to "very helpful" and "5" refers to "not at all helpful."

Regardless of the size of their operating expenditures, libraries derived a wide range of benefits from their membership in the Library System. Generally, a larger percent of libraries with small operating expenditures than libraries with medium and large operating expenditures reported deriving these benefits. A larger percent of libraries with small and medium operating expenditures than libraries with large operating expenditures were most appreciative of the quality of their collection, the ability to utilize new technology and resources and offer enhanced access to a variety of information.

Table C.10


Operating Expenditures

Major Benefits Library Derived from Membership in Library System

Small (N=130)

Medium (N=147)

Large (N=140)

#

%

#

%

#

%

Offered programs to meet the needs of special populations

45

35.4%

54

37.2%

51

37.8%

Increased staff's knowledge and competence of library management and operations

120

94.5%

125

86.2%

110

81.5%

Have a current materials collection that is broad in scope and can better meet community needs

107

84.3%

116

80.0%

99

73.3%

Library is better able to utilize new technology and resources to service the community

106

83.5%

112

77.2%

90

66.7%

Library offers enhanced access to a variety of information

105

82.7%

121

83.4%

79

58.5%

Library is able to obtain additional funding and other resources to improve services

99

78.0%

105

72.4%

83

61.5%

Library is able to plan services to meet the future needs of the community

73

57.5%

87

60.0%

68

50.4%

Consulting, advice, information sharing

1

0.8%

3

2.1%

11

8.1%

Part Two, Appendix B | Part Two, Appendix D

Page last modified: March 2, 2011