III. SCHOOL LIBRARY STANDARDS AND LIBRARY PERFORMANCE

The Texas State Library and Archives Commission (TSLAC), in consultation with the State Board of Education, adopted standards for school library services. The Texas Education Code 33.021 sets forth that "A school district shall consider the standards in developing, implementing, or expanding library services." The School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas address five components:

  • Library program management
  • Library learning environment
  • Curriculum integration
  • Resources
  • Facilities

The standards and guidelines are applied at four levels: exemplary, recognized, acceptable, and below standard.

School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas are available in electronic format at http://www.tsl.texas.gov/ld/schoollibs/index.html

1. Library Program Management

1.1 Staffing

Library staffing levels recommended by the School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas are based on school size (number of students). The standards divide schools into six size categories and specify staffing ranges for each category.

  • Library staff in schools with an enrollment of up to 350 students should range from one certified librarian to one certified librarian and one para-professional.
  • Library staff in schools with an enrollment of 351 to 700 students should range from one certified librarian and .5 para-professional to one certified librarian and 1.5 para-professionals.
  • Library staff in schools with an enrollment of 701 to 1,050 students should range from one certified librarian and one para-professional to a staff of two certified librarians and two para-professionals.
  • Library staff in schools with an enrollment between 1,051 and 1,400 students should range from one certified librarian and two para-professionals to a staff of two certified librarians and three para-professionals.
  • Library staff in schools with an enrollment of 1,401 to 2,000 students should range from two certified librarians and two para-professionals to three certified librarians and four para-professionals.
  • Library staff in the largest schools, those with an enrollment of over 2,000 students, should add one additional librarian and 1.5 para-professional staff for every 700 students.

1.1.1 Elementary School Library Staff

Library staffing levels varied by educational level. At the elementary school level, libraries had on average one librarian and 0.67 para-professional staff (referred to in this report as library aides) for a total of 1.67 staff members. Thirty-eight percent of the elementary school libraries in the sample had only one staff member, 55 percent had two staff, and six percent of the libraries had three or more staff members. On average, library staff worked 61.5 hours per week: certified librarians worked 38.8 hours a week and library aides worked 22.7 hours per week. In addition to certified librarians and library aides, elementary school libraries also used adult and student volunteers in the library. Fifty percent of the libraries used adult volunteers and 32 percent used student volunteers. On average, libraries with adult volunteers had 4.4 volunteers working 12.9 hours a week in the library. Libraries with student volunteers had, on average, 3.8 student volunteers working 7.3 hours per week in the library. Elementary schools in the sample ranged from less than 100 to 1,376 students.

Table III.1 - Elementary School Library Staff
Staff Means/Percent
Number of librarians 1.01
Number of library aides 0.67
Number of library staff 1.68
Percent of libraries with one staff member 38.5%
Percent of libraries with two staff members 55.8%
Percent of libraries with three or more staff 5.7%
Librarians' person hours per week 38.8
Library aides hours per week 22.7
Library staff person hours per week 61.5

Nine percent of the elementary schools in the sample had enrollment of up to 350 students. All these libraries had a librarian, although 83 percent of these libraries had a full-time librarian. Thirty-seven percent also had library aides.

Fifty-six percent of elementary schools in the sample had between 351 to 700 students. Ninety-three percent of the schools had a full-time librarian. About 30 percent of these schools had full-time library aides; eight percent had part-time library aides.

One-third of elementary school libraries had between 701 and 1,050 students. Ninety-eight percent of the schools had a full-time librarian; 61 percent had full-time library aides and 11 percent had part-time library aides. The libraries in this school size category fell short of the staffing levels recommended by the standards and guidelines especially with regards to library aides levels.

About two percent of elementary schools had 1,051 to 1,400 students. All had one full-time librarian; 60 percent had one or two full-time library aides. The libraries in this school size category fell short of the staffing levels recommended by the standards and guidelines.

Table III.2 Elementary School Size, Standards, and Library Staff
Elementary School Size Number/


Percent of Schools (266)
Acceptable to Exemplary Minimum Program Level for Staffing per Campus in School Library Standards Number of Staff Librarians Library Aides
Full-


time
Part- time Full- time Part- time
Up to 350 24


9.0%
1 certified librarian to


1 certified librarian + 1 aide
1 20


83.3%
4


16.7%
6


25.0%
2


8.3%
2 -- -- 1


4.2%
--
351 to 700 148


55.6%
1 certified librarian + .5 aide


to


1 certified librarian + 1.5 aides
1 137


92.6%
9


6.1%
61


41.2%
23


15.5%
2 -- 2


1.3%
3


2.0%
3


2.0%
701 to 1,050 89


33.5%
1 certified librarian + 1 aide


to


2 certified librarians + 2 aides
1 87


97.7%
1


1.1%
51


57.3%
10


11.2%
2 -- 1


1.1%
3


3.4%
--
1,051 to 1,400 5


1.9%
1 certified librarian + 2 aides


to


2 certified librarians + 3 aides
1 5


100.0%
-- 2


40.0%
--
2 -- -- 1


20.0%
--

To measure the role and effect of library staff on library performance, library staffing levels and hours were examined at "per 100 students." For each staff category, the number of staff and the number of hours these staff worked per week were correlated with a set of library variables. Please note that all significant correlation coefficients in the report are 1-tailed unless otherwise specified.

Libraries’ staffing resources were significantly and positively associated with the size of the libraries’ collection, technology, and budgetary resources. Libraries with more librarians per 100 students also have:

  • A larger operating budget per student

  • More library print resources such as subscriptions to newspapers and magazines per 100 students

  • More technology resources in or under library supervision per 100 students, including:
    • Number of computers in the library
    • Library computers on a Local Area Network (LAN)
    • Library computers with CD ROM drives
Table III.3 Elementary School Librarians Correlations
Correlation

Elementary School Librarians Per 100 Students

Pearson Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Elementary School Librarian Hours Per 100 Students

Pearson Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Library operational expenditures per student .483


.000


258
.158


.005


258
Library Collection:
Library subscriptions to newspapers and magazines per 100 students .473


.000


258
.465


.000


258
Library Technology:
Number of computers in or under library supervision per 100 students .383


.000


263
.243


.000


263
Number of computers in or under library supervision on a Local Area Network .294


.000


263
.432


.000


263
Number of computers in or under library supervision with CD ROM drives .321


.000


263
.369


.000


263

Librarians have to perform a wide range of activities beyond basic library duties such as checking materials in and out, shelving, processing, and retrieving materials. The Mission Statement of School Library Programs, and the State Board of Educator Certification Standards for School for Library Certificate, expect librarians to:

  • Provide instruction to foster competencies in acquiring and using information and ideas, and in evaluating information resources.
  • Stimulate interest in reading and appreciation of literature through group instruction and individual guidance.
  • Provide intellectual and physical access to materials in multiple formats.
  • Work with other educators to design and carry out learning experiences to meet the individual needs of students.

The presence of library aides and the number of hours they work are critical to librarians’ ability to perform the range of activities specified by the standards and guidelines and the State Board of Educator Certification Standards for School Library Certificate. Library aides "free" the librarian from having to perform basic library activities and allow the librarian to allocate time to activities that are more directly related to teaching and training staff and students. The hours library aides work allows the librarian to be a leader and a recognized professional through involvement with teachers, administrators, and with other librarians. In addition, the extent to which library aides are available increases library usage by individuals and classes.

The presence of library aides was most strongly associated with activities such as:

  • Meetings with principals and other school administrators
  • Administrating electronic reading programs
  • Managing library technology
Table III.4 Elementary School Library Aides Correlations
Correlation

Elementary School Library Aides Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Elementary School Library Aides Hours Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Library operational expenditures per student .369


.000


258
.158


.005


264
Meet with principal and other administrators .216


.000


261
.374


.000


261
Administer electronic reading programs such as Accelerated Reader, Electronic Bookshelf .210


.000


261
.351


.000


261
Managing library technology .161


.005


261
.287


.000


261

To expand their staffing resources, elementary school libraries use volunteers. One-half of the elementary school libraries use adult volunteers and 32 percent use student volunteers. On average, elementary school libraries with adult volunteers utilize 4.4 adult volunteers, and libraries with student volunteers utilize about four student volunteers in a typical week. In these libraries, volunteers work about 21 hours per week, an amount of time similar to the average amount of time worked by library aides. Volunteers expand staff hours by about one-third.

Table III.5 Elementary School Library Volunteers
Library Volunteers Means/Percent
Number of adult volunteers 4.4
Number of student volunteers 3.8
Number of library volunteers 8.2
Number of hours adult volunteers work per week 12.9
Number of hours student volunteers work per week 7.3
Total number of volunteer hours per week 20.7
Percent of libraries with adult volunteers 50.2%
Percent of libraries with student volunteers 32.2%

Libraries that utilize adult and student volunteers are more likely to engage in a range of teaching and leadership activities, through librarian involvement with faculty, administrators and their professional colleagues and the management of technology resources. Volunteers, similarly to library aides, allow librarians and their aides to devote less time to basic library activities and focus attention on activities that are more directly related to student instruction.

1.1.2 Middle/Junior High School Library Staff

Middle/Junior high schools in the sample ranged in size from 104 to 1,686 students. On average, middle/junior high school libraries have 1.76 paid staff. Library staff consists, on average, of 1.05 librarians and .71 library aides. Thirty-six percent of the middle/junior high schools have one library staff member, 52 percent have two staff members, and 12 percent have three or more staff members. On average, library staff provide 65 hours of service per week: librarians provide 40 hours of service a week and library aides: 25 hours. In addition, 26 percent of the middle/junior high school libraries have adult volunteers and 60 percent have student volunteers. On average, middle/junior high school libraries with adult volunteers have 1.3 adult volunteers working four hours per week, and libraries with student volunteers have 7.2 student volunteers working 25.9 hours per week. In these libraries, volunteers work 32 hours per week.

Table III.6 - Middle/Junior High School Library Staff
Staff Means/Percent
Number of librarians 1.05
Number of library aides 0.71
Number of library staff 1.76
Percent of libraries with one staff member 35.9%
Percent of libraries with two staff members 52.4%
Percent of libraries with three or more staff 11.6%
Librarians' person hours per week 40.2
Library aides hours per week 25.0
Library staff person hours per week 65.2

Twelve percent of the middle/junior high schools in the sample had enrollment of up to 350 students. All these libraries had a librarian, although only two-thirds had a full-time librarian. One-quarter also had library aides.

Thirty-two percent of middle/junior high schools in the sample had between 351 to 700 students. Ninety-seven percent of the schools had a full-time librarian. About 60 percent of these schools had aides: 45 percent had full-time library aides; 15 percent had part-time library aides. Libraries in this school size category fell short in the number of library aides recommended by the standards and guidelines.

Thirty-six percent of middle/junior high school libraries had between 701 and 1,050 students. All of the schools had a full-time librarian; 68 percent had library aides: 57 had full-time aides and 11 percent had part-time library aides. Libraries in this school size category fell short of the library aide levels recommended.

Fourteen percent of middle/junior high schools had 1,051 to 1,400 students. All had full-time librarians; 71 percent had one or two full-time library aides and seven percent had part-time aides. Libraries in this school size category fell short especially in the number of library aides.

Seven percent of the middle/junior high schools had 1,401 to 2,000 students. All had one or two full-time librarians; 14 percent also had a part-time librarian. All had one or two full-time aides; 14 percent also had one part-time aide. Libraries in this school size category fell short of the staffing levels recommended in the standards and guidelines.

Table III.7 Middle/Junior High School Size, Standards, and Library Staff
Middle/


Junior High School Size
Number/


Percent of Schools (103)
Accenptable to Exemplary Minimum Program Levels for Staffing per Campus in School Library Standards Number of Staff Librarians Library Aides
Full- time Part- time Full- time Part- time
Up to 350 12


11.6%
1 certified librarian


to


1 certified librarian


+ 1 aide
1 8


66.7%
4


33.3%
2


16.7%
--
2 -- -- 1


8.3%
--
351 to 700 33


32.0%
1 certified librarian


+ .5 aide


to


1 certified librarian


+ 1.5 aides
1 32


97.0%
-- 15


45.4%
5


15.1%
2 -- -- -- --
701 to 1,050 37


35.9%
1 certified librarian


+ 1 aide


to


2 certified librarians


+ 2 aides
1 37


100.0%
-- 21


56.8%
4


10.8%
2 -- -- -- 1


2.7%
1,051 to 1,400 14


13.6%
1 certified librarian


+ 2 aides


to


2 certified librarians


+ 3 aides
1 12


85.7%
-- 9


64.3%
1


7.1%
2 2


14.3%
-- 1


7.1%
--
1,401 to 2,000 7


6.8%
2 certified librarians


+ 2 aides


to


3 certified librarians


+ 4 aides
1 4


57.1%
1


14.3%
5


71.4%
1


14.3%
2 3


42.9%
-- 2


28.6%
--

Middle/junior high schools with over 350 students fell short in their library staffing levels based on library staffing standards and guidelines. Insufficient library staffing has a negative effect on library use. The number of librarians and the number of librarian hours per 100 students were correlated with:

  • Number of visits to the library by individuals
  • Number of books and other materials checked out per student

That is, libraries with more librarians and librarian hours are able to accommodate visits by more students and facilitate more library activities represented by volume of materials checked out. The middle/junior high school librarian staffing levels were highly correlated with resources such as:

  • Library’s operational expenditures per student
  • Print collection
  • Library technology with networked access to CD ROM resources per 100 students

Middle/Junior high school libraries with more librarian resources also have larger collections, more technology resources, and are supported by larger operating budgets per student.

Table III.8 Middle/Junior High School Librarians Correlations
Correlation with:

Middle School Librarians Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Middle School Librarian Hours Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Operational expenditures per student .425


.000


100
.415


.000


100
Library Use:
Number of visits to library by individual per student .631


.000


101
.631


.000


101
Number of books and other materials checked out per student .544


.000


101
.598


.000


101
Number of print volumes per student .538


.000


103
.547


.000


103
Library Technology:
Number of computers in or under library supervision with networked access to CD ROM resources per 100 students .451


.000


101
.351


.000


101
Number of computers in or under library supervision with CD ROM drives per 100 students .354


.000


101
.279


.002


101
Number of computers in or under library supervision per 100 students .326


.000


101
.264


.004


101
Number of video materials per 100 students .323


.000


103
.235


.008


103

Similar to elementary school libraries, middle/junior high school librarians with library aides are more likely to:

  • Administer electronic reading programs
  • Manage technology
  • Meet with the principal and other school administrators
  • Facilitate information skills instruction contacts with individuals
Table III.9 - Middle/Junior High School Library Aides Correlations
Correlation with:

Middle School Library Aides Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Middle School Library Aides Hours Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Administer electronic reading programs such as Accelerated Reader, Electronic Bookshelp .455


.000


101
.467


.000


101
Meet with principal and other administrators .409


.000


101
.423


.000


101
Manage library technology .362


.000


101
.372


.000


101
Number of information skills instruction contacts with individuals per student .400


.000


101
.424


.000


101

Having adequate library staff (librarians and aides) impacts most strongly library use, as reflected by:

  • Visits to the library by individual students
  • Information skills instruction contacts
  • Books and materials checked out
  • Administration of electronic reading programs
Table III.10 - Middle/Junior High School Library Staff Correlations
Correlation with:

Middle School Library Staff Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Middle School Library Staff Hours Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Staff Activities:
Administer electronic reading programs such as Accelerated Reader, Electronic Bookshelf .369


.000


101
.393


.000


101
Library Use:
Number of visits by individuals to library per student .543


.000


101
.619


.000


101
Number of information skills instructions contacts with individuals per 100 students .403


.000


101
.404


.000


101
Number of books and other materials checked out of library per 100 students .348


.000


101
.407


.000


101
Library Collection:
Print volumes per student .483


.000


103
.528


.000


103

The use of volunteers in middle/junior high school libraries is less common than in elementary school libraries. One-quarter of the middle/junior high school libraries reported having adult volunteers and 60 percent reported having student volunteers. Volunteers are typically students. On average, these libraries have one adult volunteer and seven student volunteers who work 32 hours per week.

Table III.11 Middle/Junior High School Library Volunteers
Library Volunteers Means/Percent
Number of adult volunteers 1.3
Number of student volunteers 7.2
Number of library volunteers 8.5
Number of hours adult volunteers work per week 4.0
Nubmer of hours student volunteers work per week 25.9
Total number of volunteer hours per week 32.0
Percent of libraries with adult volunteers 26.0%
Percent of libraries with student volunteers 59.6%

The availability of volunteers in middle/junior high school libraries "frees" librarians to engage in activities such as teaching cooperatively with teachers, participating in curriculum, technology and planning committees, and meetings with library staff.

In middle/junior high school libraries with volunteers, librarians are more likely to engage in these activities.

1.1.3 High School Library Staff

Over three-quarters of high school libraries have two or more staff members. On average, high school libraries have 2.36 staff members. High school libraries have, on average, about one and one-half librarians and nearly a full-time library aide. Library staff work 89.5 hours in a typical week.

Table III.12 - High School Library Staff
Staff Means/Percent
Number of librarians 1.40
Number of library aides 0.98
Number of library staff 2.36
Percent of libraries with one staff member 22.5%
Percent of libraries with two staff members 39.5%
Percent of libraries with three or more staff 38.0%
Librarians' hours per week 53.9
Library aides' hours per week 35.5
Library staff hours per week 89.5

One-quarter of the high schools in the sample had enrollment of up to 350 students. All these libraries had a librarian; 82 percent had a full-time librarian. Thirty-seven percent also had one or two library aides and 12.5 percent had part-time aides.

High school libraries with 351 or more students fell short in their staff based on library staffing standards and guidelines.

Twenty-one percent of high schools in the sample had between 351 to 700 students. Ninety-six percent of the schools had one or two full-time librarians and four percent had a part-time librarian. About 60 percent of these schools had aides: 41 percent had a full-time library aide; 18 percent had a part-time library aide. Libraries in this school size category fell short on the library aides staffing levels recommended by the standards and guidelines.

Ten percent of high school libraries had between 701 and 1,050 students. All of the schools had one or two full-time librarians; 77 percent had one or two full-time library aides and 15 percent had one or two part-time library aides. Libraries in this school size category fell short on the library aides staffing levels recommended by the standards and guidelines.

Eight percent of high schools had 1,051 to 1,400 students. All had one or two full-time librarians; 60 percent had one or two full-time library aides and 20 percent had part-time aides. Libraries in this school size category fell short on the library aides staffing levels recommended by the standards and guidelines.

Fifteen percent of the high schools had 1,401 to 2,000 students. All had one to three full-time librarians. However, only 32 percent had one full-time aide. Libraries in this school size category fell short on the staffing levels recommended for librarians and for library aides.

Twenty-two percent of the high schools had more than 2,000 students. All the schools had one to three full-time librarians. About 90 percent had one to four full-time aides. Libraries in this school size category fell short on the staffing levels recommended for librarians and for library aides.

Table III.13 High School Size, Standards, and Library Staff
High School Size Number/Percent of Schools (129) Accenptable to Exemplary Minimum Program Levels for Staffing per Campus in School Library Standards Number of Staff Librarians Library Aides
Full- time Part- time Full- time Part- time
Up to 350 32


24.8%
1 certified librarian


to


1 certified librarian


+ 1 aide
1 26


81.2%
6


18.7%
11


34.4%
3


9.4%
2 -- -- 1


3.1%
1


3.1%
351 to 700 27


20.9%
1 certified librarian


+ .5 aide


to


1 certified librarian


+ 1.5 aides
1 25


92.6%
1


3.7%
11


40.7%
5


18.5%
2 1


3.7%
-- -- --
701 to 1,050 13


10.1%
1 certified librarian


+ 1 aide


to


2 certified librarians


+ 2 aides
1 10


76.9%
-- 9


69.2%
1


7.7%
2 3


23.1%
-- 1


7.7%
1


7.7%
1,051 to 1,400 10


7.7%
1 certified librarian


+ 2 aides


to


2 certified librarians


+ 3 aides
1 6


60.0%
-- 5


50.0%
2


20.0%
2 4


40.0%
-- 1


10.0%
--
1,401 to 2,000 19


14.7%
2 certified librarians


+ 2 aides


to


3 certified librarians


+ 4 aides
1 4


21.0%
-- 10


52.6%
4


21.0%
2 14


73.7%
-- 6


31.6%
--
3 1


5.3%
-- -- --
2,001 to 3,395 28


21.7%
Add 1 certified librarian + 1.5 aides for every 700 students 1 4


14.3%
1


3.6%
10


35.7%
1


3.6%
2 22


78.6%
-- 14


50.0%
--
3 2


7.1%
-- -- --
4 -- -- 1


3.6%
--

The presence of professional librarians and the number of hours they work per week are strongly associated with the size of the library’s collection resources and extent of library use. High school libraries with more librarians per 100 students are likely to have a larger collection and a more up-to-date collection. Such libraries are also likely to have a higher level of library use as reflected by the number of visits to the library by both individuals and classes and the number of materials checked out. Furthermore, high school libraries with a higher level of staffing are also more likely to have a board approved collection development policy.

Table III.14 High School Librarians Correlations
Correlations with:

High School Librarians Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

High School Librarian Hours Per 100 Students

Pearson


Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Operational expenditures per students .353


.000


122
.403


.000


122
Board approved collection development policy .329


.000


129
.347


.000


129
Library Use:
Number of visits to library by individual per student .536


.000


125
.469


.000


125
Percent of regularly scheduled visits to library by classes .176


.025


125
.451


.000


125
Number of books and other materials checked out per student .640


.000


125
.637


.000


125
Library Collection:
Number of print volumes per student .778


.000


128
.617


.000


128
Number of newspaper and magazine subscriptions per 100 students .793


.000


128
.660


.000


128
Number of volumes purchased in 99-00 per 100 students .471


.000


105
.394


.000


105
Number of medicine and health volumes purchased in 99-00 per 100 students .446


.000


110
.262


.003


110
In-library software packages per 100 students .268


.001


128
.344


.000


128

Typically, high school libraries have one full-time aide. The number of library aides per 100 students, similar to the librarian staffing levels, are strongly associated with the size and up-to-date nature of the library collection. High school libraries with more library aides per 100 students are likely to have larger collections and collections that are up-to-date. Such libraries tend to have larger capital outlay budgets per student. The presence of library aides is also associated with greater library use per student as reflected in the number of materials checked out and in visits to the library.

Table III.15 High School Library Aides Correlations
Correlation with:

High School Library Aides Per 100 Students

Pearson Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

High School Library Aides Hours Per 100 Students

Pearson Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)

Staff Activities:
Managing library technology .356


.000


125
.369


.000


125
Providing reading incentive activities .318


.000


125
.301


.000


125
Library Use:
Number of visits by individuals to library per student .347


.000


125
.362


.000


125
Number of books and other materials checked out per 100 students .435


.000


125
.451


.000


125
Library Collection:
Print volumes per student .630


.000


128
.639


.000


128
Subscriptions to newspapers and magazines per 100 students .627


.000


128
.595


.000


128
Volumes purchased in 99-00 per 100 students .379


.000


105
.351


.000


105
Medicine and health volumes purchased in 99-00 per 100 students .454


.000


110
.518


.000


110
Library Financial Resources:
Library capital outlay per student .436


.000


122
.343


.000


122
Library operational expenditures per student .336


.000


122
.281


.001


122

Volunteers are less common in high school libraries than in elementary and middle/junior high schools. Only 12 to 13 percent of the high school libraries reported using volunteers. Volunteers in high school libraries are typically students. On average, about six students work in the library in a typical week for about 18 hours.

Table III.16 High School Library Volunteers
Library Volunteers Means/Percent
Number of adult volunteers 0.5
Number of student volunteers 5.7
Number of library volunteers 6.3
Number of hours adult volunteers work per week 1.5
Number of hours student volunteers work per week 17.7
Total number of volunteer hours per week 20.7
Percent of libraries with adult volunteers 13.2%
Percent of libraries with student volunteers 12.4%

Although volunteers are less common in high school libraries than in elementary and middle/junior high school libraries, high school libraries with larger collections and more recent collections are more likely to use volunteers.

1.2 Staff Qualifications

Librarians were asked to report the qualifications of their staff; both professional librarians and library aides. As shown in the table below:

  • about 60 percent of elementary and middle/junior high school libraries and 74 percent of high school libraries have staff with a Master’s degree or higher and with teacher and library science certification
  • 22 percent of elementary school libraries, 34 percent of middle/junior high school libraries, and 25 percent of high school libraries have staff with a Bachelor’s degree and teacher and library science certification.
Table III.17 Library Staff Qualifications
Qualifications Elementary Schools(267)


%
Middle/Junior High Schools(104)


%
High Schools(129)


%
Master's degree or higher with teacher and library science certification 59.2% 60.6% 73.6%
Master's degree with teacher certification or other state credentials 3.7% 1.9% 5.4%
Master's degree without teacher certification or other state credentials 0.4% -- 0.8%
Bachelor's degree with teacher and library science certification 21.7% 33.6% 24.8%
Bachelor's degree with teacher certification and ExCet 15.0% 6.7% 8.5%
Bachelor's degree without teacher certification 6.7% 6.7% 4.6%
Less than Bachelor's degree 53.2% 99.0% 69.0%

Continue on to Chapter 3, Section 2

 

Page last modified: March 2, 2011