2. Library Financial Resources

The School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas recognize that a viable library needs an adequate budget to acquire library materials, equipment and supplies. The standards and guidelines recommend that libraries "receive sufficient funds, but not less than one (1%) percent (acceptable library program), two (2%) percent (recognized library program) or three (3%) percent (exemplary library program) of the total instructional budget annually to acquire library materials, equipment and supplies in support of school library program." On average, library budgets, at all educational levels, constitute less than one percent of the respective school's instructional budget. At the elementary and middle/junior high school levels, the average library's budget is one-half of one percent of the school's instructional budget. At the high school level, the average library budget is closer to one percent of the school's instructional budget. Among all libraries in our sample, only two elementary school libraries and three high school libraries had a budget that was three percent or more of the school's instructional budget.

Table III.18 Library Budget as Percent of Instructional Budget
Library Library Budget as Percent of Instructional Budget Mean
Elementary school libraries 0.53%
Middle/Junior high school libraries 0.49%
High school libraries 0.79%

On average, libraries' operating expenditures (funded by the school) per student ranged from $16.45 to $26.69. When taking all funding sources into account, libraries operating expenditures per student ranged from $22.14 at the elementary school level to $31.45 at the high school level.

Table III.19 Library Operating Budget Per Student
Library Library Operating Budget per Student (School Funds Only) Library Operating Budget per Student (All Funding Sources)
Elementary school libraries $16.45 $22.14
Middle/Junior high school libraries $16.64 $24.26
High school libraries $26.69 $31.45

2.1 Elementary School Library Budget

Forty-nine percent of elementary school librarians reported that they prepare and submit a library budget request to their principal. On average, elementary school library's operational expenditures in 1999-00 were $12,529 and its capital outlay budget was $3,213. Seventy-five percent of operational expenditures came from the school as did 47 percent of its capital outlay budget. Twenty-five percent of operational expenditures and 53 percent of capital outlay came from other sources. Elementary school libraries spent, on average, 76 percent of their operating budget on print materials and 13 percent on electronic materials and access to information.

Table III.20 Elementary School Libraries 1999-00 Budget
1999-00 Budget School Budget All Other Sources Total
$ Means % $ Means % $ Means %
Total Operating Expenditures $9,371.06 100.0% $3,159.16 100.0% $12,529.47 100.0%
Books as reported in budget category 12-6669 $6,383.92 68.1% $2,573.47 81.5% $8,957.39 71.5%
Newspapers and magazines as reported in budget category 12-6399 $612.53 6.5% $14.95 0.5% $627.42 5.0%
Electronic format materials (software, CD ROM, laser discs) $483.52 5.2% $142.32 4.5% $625.84 5.0%
Non-print materials (audio, video, microform) $618.92 6.6% $179.84 5.7% $798.06 6.4%
Electronic access to information (online databases, searching, Internet access) $128.22 1.4% $49.50 1.6% $177.72 1.4%
Other operating expenditures $1,143.95 12.2% $199.08 6.3% $1,343.04 10.7%
Total Capital Outlay $1,517.10 100.0% $1,696.24 100.0% $3,213.33 100.0%
Equipment (computers, CD ROM drives, VCRs) $1,083.52 71.4% $1,020.52 60.2% $2,104.04 65.5%
Other capital purchases (furniture, shelving) $433.58 28.6% $675.72 39.8% $1,109.29 34.5%
Total Budget $10,888.16 $4,855.40 $15,742.80

Elementary school library operational expenditures were most highly associated with the up-to-date status of its collection. Libraries with more up-to-date collections as reflected by the number of volumes per 100 students are likely to have a higher operating budget per student. The amount of library's operational budget is also associated with its staffing levels. Libraries with high operating budgets tended to have more librarians and more library staff per 100 students.

Table III.21 Elementary School Library Operational Expenditures Per Student
Library Operational Expenditures Per Student Pearson Correlation (r) Probability  Number (n) 
Number of volumes purchased in 99-00 per 100 students .669 .000 215
Current subscriptions of newspapers and magazines per 100 students .331 .000 250
Librarians per 100 students .483 .000 258
Library staff per 100 students .477 .000 258

2.2 Middle/Junior High School Library Budget

Fifty-nine percent of middle/junior school librarians reported that they prepare and submit a library budget request to their school administration. The average operational expenditures of middle/junior high school libraries in 1999-00 were $16,145 and its capital outlay budget was $5,450. Sixty-nine percent of the library's operational expenditures came from the school as did 28 percent of its capital outlay budget. Thirty-one percent of operational expenditures and 72 percent of capital outlay came from other sources. Middle/Junior high school libraries spent, on average, 72 percent of their operating budget on print materials and 18 percent on electronic materials and electronic access to information.

Table III.22 Middle/Junior High School Libraries 1999-00 Budget
1999-00 Budget School Budget All Other Sources Total
$ Means % $ Means % $ Means %
Total Operating Expenditures $11,095.13 100.0% $5,050.54 100.0% $16,144.67 100.0%
Books as reported in budget category 12-6669 $6,871.27 61.9% $3,472.17 68.7% $10,343.44 64.1%
Newspapers and magazines as reported in budget category 12-6399 $1,236.35 11.1% $16.35 0.3% $1,251.70 7.8%
Electronic format materials (software, CD ROM, laser discs) $510.77 4.6% $233.66 4.6% $744.43 4.6%
Non-print materials (audio, video, microform) $676.24 6.1% $180.35 3.6% $856.58 5.3%
Electronic access to information (online databases, searching, Internet access) $279.60 2.5% $1,096.53 21.7% $1,376.14 8.5%
Other operating expenditures $1,520.90 13.7% $51.48 1.0% $1,572.38 9.7%
Total Capital Outlay $1,530.98 100.0% $3,918.78 100.0% $5,449.76 100.0%
Equipment (computers, CD ROM drives, VCRs) $1,176.70 76.9% $3,209.02 81.9% $4,385.72 80.5%
Other capital purchases (furniture, shelving) $354.28 23.1% $709.76 18.1% $1,064.04 19.5%
Total Budget $12,626.11 $8,969.32 $21,594.43

Middle/Junior high school libraries with a higher operational budget are more likely to have more librarians and library aides and more staff hours per 100 students. Such libraries are also more likely to have larger print collections.

Table III.23 Middle/Junior High School Library Operational Expenditures Per Student
Correlation of Library Operational Expenditures Per Student with: Pearson Correlation (r) Probability (p) Number (n)
Print volumes per student .404 .000 100
Librarians per 100 students .425 .000 100
Librarian hours per 100 students .415 .000 100
Library staff hours per 100 students .426 .000 100
Library staff per 100 students .394 .000 100

2.3 High School Library Budget

Sixty-nine percent of high school libraries reported that they prepare and submit a library budget request to their school administration. On average, a high school library's operational expenditures in 1999-00 were $27,175 and its capital outlay budget was $10,134. Eighty-three percent of the library's operational expenditures and 55 percent of its capital outlay budget came from the school. Seventeen percent of the operational expenditures and 45 percent of capital outlay came from other sources. High school libraries spent, on average, 71 percent of their operating budget on print materials and 18 percent on electronic media and electronic access to information.

Table III.24 High School Libraries 1999-00 Budget
1999-00 Budget School Budget All Other Sources Total
$ Means % $ Means % $ Means %
Total Operating Expenditures $22,625.68 100.0% $4,557.78 100.0% $27,174.66 100.0%
Books as reported in budget category 12-6669 $13,375.73 59.1% $3,618.72 79.4% $16,994.45 62.5%
Newspapers and magazines as reported in budget category 12-6399 $2,290.12 10.1% $36.78 0.8% $2,326.60 8.6%
Electronic format materials (software, CD ROM, laser discs) $1,299.16 5.7% $95.92 2.1% $1,395.08 5.1%
Non-print materials (audio, video, microform) $1,546.03 6.8% $345.27 7.6% $1,882.81 6.9%
Electronic access to information (online databases, searching, Internet access) $1,362.12 6.0% $276.48 6.1% $1,638.59 6.0%
Other operating expenditures $2,752.52 12.2% $184.61 4.1% $2,937.13 10.8%
Total Capital Outlay $5,371.54 100.0% $4,802.06 100.0% $10,134.24 100.0%
Equipment (computers, CD ROM drives, VCRs) $3,595.36 66.9% $3,699.13 77.0% $7,264.17 71.7%
Other capital purchases (furniture, shelving) $1,776.18 33.1% $1,102.93 23.0% $2,870.07 28.3%
Total Budget $27,997.22 $9,359.84 $37,308.90

High school libraries with higher operating budgets per student are more likely to have more up-to-date collections and library technology resources. They are also more likely to have more librarian hours per 100 students.

Table III.25 High School Library Operational Expenditures Per Student
Correlation of Library Operational Expenditures Per Student with: Pearson Correlation (r) Probability (p) Number (n)
Library Collection:
Books and library materials purchased in 99-00 per 100 students .861 .000 104
Books in medicine and health purchased in 99-00 per 100 students .471 .000 109
Current subscriptions to newspapers and magazines per 100 students .440 .000 122
Library Technology:
Number of computers in or under library supervision and those with access to library resources per 100 students .674 .000 121
Number of computers in or under library supervision with modems per 100 students .467 .000 121
Staffing:
Librarian hours per 100 students .403 .000 122
Library staff per 100 students .374 .000 122

Continue on to Chapter 3, Section 3

 

Page last modified: March 2, 2011