IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIBRARY RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE

The data compiled in this study consisted of more than 200 library, school, and community variables. To examine the relationship between library resources and activities and students' performance as measured by the percent of students who met minimum expectations on TAAS reading, the first step in the analysis was to identify the variables that best represented the library's programs, resources and activities. These variables (predictors) were identified by computing bivariate correlation coefficients. Based on the School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas and recent studies, library variables were grouped into five areas:

  • Library program development
  • Leadership activities
  • Teaching/Collaboration activities
  • Library technology
  • School technology with access to networked library resources

Similar analytical procedures were also used with the large number of school and community variables.

The next step was to move from a group of single library variables to the creation of groupings (factors) in order to examine the relationship among these variables. This was achieved by using factor analysis.

The third step in the analysis was to examine the relationship between student performance on TAAS reading (i.e. the percent of students who met minimum expectations of TAAS reading) and the library variables and identify which group of variables was most strongly associated with TAAS performance.

The fourth step was to expand the factor analysis by adding school and community variables. The objective of this step was to identify factors that are uncorrelated with each other for use in a multiple regression analysis. Using uncorrelated factors in a regression analysis is important in order to avoid multicollinearity.

The last step in the examination of the effect of library variables on TAAS performance was to measure the degree to which TAAS performance can be explained by library variables and identify those variables that contribute most to TAAS performance.

Library Program Development

1.1 Elementary School Libraries

The survey collected data from librarians on a wide range of library program infrastructure elements. Among these elements, six variables were identified as having positive and significant correlations for elementary school libraries. The bivariate correlations between these variables were typically moderate to high. These variables, all expressed as ratios, include:

  • Size of the library staff per 100 students
  • Library staff hours per 100 students
  • Library hours of operation per 100 students
  • Print volumes per student
  • Current newspaper and magazine subscriptions per 100 students
  • Library's operational expenditures per student
Table IV.1 - Bivariate Correlation Coefficients for Library Program Development Variables for Elementary Schools
Pearson Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)
Library Staff Per 100 Students Staff Hours Per 100 Students Hours Library is Open Per 100 Students Print Volumes Per Student Magazine and Newspaper Subscrip-tions Per 100 Students Library's Operating Expenditures Per Student
Library staff per 100 students 1.000


---
Staff hours per 100 students .692


.000


266
1.000


---
Library hours of operation per 100 students .870


.000


264
.577


.000


264
1.000


---
Print volumes per student .196


.001


256
.249


.000


256
.212


.000


256
1.000


---
Magazine and newspaper subscriptions per 100 students .403


.000


256
.467


.000


256
.461


.000


256
.271


.000


256
1.000


---
Library's operating expenditures per students .477


.000


258
.218


.000


258
.499


.000


256
.138


.015


250
.331


.000


250
1.000


---

1.2 Middle/Junior High School Libraries

At the middle/junior high school level, program development variables that correlated significantly included:

  • Library staff per 100 students
  • Library staff hours per 100 students
  • Library hours of operation per 100 students
  • Library's print volumes per student
  • Library's video collection per 100 students
  • Library's operational expenditures per student

The bivariate correlation coefficients between the program development variables were moderate to high.

Table IV.2 - Bivariate Correlation Coefficients for Library Program Development Variables for Middle/Junior High Schools
Pearson Correlation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)
Library Staff Per 100 Students Staff Hours Per 100 Students Hours Library is Open Per 100 Students Print Volumes Per Student Magazine and Newspaper Subscrip


-tions Per 100 Students
Library's Operating Expenditures Per Student
Library staff per 100 students 1.000


---
Staff hours per 100 students .939


.000


103
1.000


---
Library hours of operation per 100 students .759


.000


103
.736


.000


103
1.000


---
Print volumes per student .483


.000


103
.528


.000


103
.569


.000


103
1.000


---
Video materials per 100 students .244


.006


103
.197


.023


103
.405


.000


103
.341


.000


103
1.000


---
Library's operating expenditures per students .394


.000


100
.426


.000


100
.460


.000


100
.404


.000


100
.225


.012


100
1.000


---

1.3 High School Libraries

At the high school level, eight program development variables were identified as having positive, high, and significant correlations. These included:

  • Library staff per 100 students
  • Library staff hours per 100 students
  • Library hours of operation per 100 students
  • Library's budget per student
  • Print volumes per student
  • Current subscriptions to newspapers and magazines per 100 students
  • Library software packages per 100 students
  • Volumes purchased in 1999-00 per 100 students

The variables representing library collection play a significant role at the high school level. The four library collection variables constitute an important part of the high school library infrastructure. These represent both the range and variety of materials in the collection and the degree to which the collection is recent. At the high school level, the size of the print collection, the magazine and newspaper collection, and the software collection appear to be significant indicators of the library's program development. Equally important is the extent to which the collection is recent.

Table IV.3 - Bivariate Correlation Coefficients for Library Program Development Variables for High Schools
Pearson Cor-


relation (r)


Significance (p)


Number (n)
Library Staff Per 100 Students Staff Hours Per 100 Students Hours Library Is Open to Students Per 100 Students Print Volumes Per Student Magazine and News-


paper Subscrip


tions Per 100 Students
Volumes Purchased in 99-00 Per 100 Students Library Software Packages Per 100 Students Library's Operating Expend-


itures Per Student
Library staff per 100 students 1.000


---
Staff hours per 100 students .969


.000


129
1.000


---
Library hours of operation per 100 students .865


.000


127
.864


.000


127
1.000


---
Print volumes per student .761


.000


128
.728


.000


128
.765


.000


126
1.000


---
Magazine and newspaper subscriptions per 100 students .767


.000


128
.722


.000


128
.411


.000


126
.765


.000


128
1.000


---
Volumes purchased in 99-00 per 100 students .461


.000


105
.444


.000


105
.403


.000


104
.420


.000


105
.544


.000


105
1.000


---
Library software per 100 students .209


.009


128
.219


.006


128
.319


.000


126
.294


.000


128
.354


.000


128
.208


.017


105
1.000


---
Operating expenditures per student .374


.000


122
.386


.000


122
.365


.000


121
.266


.001


122
.440


.000


122
.861


.000


104
.221


.007


122
1.000


---

Continue on to Chapter 4, Section 2

 

Page last modified: March 2, 2011