7. The Contribution of Library Resources and Activities to TAAS Performance

The last step in the analysis addressed the contribution that library resources and activities make to TAAS performance. The contribution of library resources and activities to TAAS performance was determined through a multiple regression analysis using TAAS performance as the dependent variable and the library and school/community factors as the independent variables. The factors were used in order to avoid multicollinearity. Multicollinearity is a situation in which some or all the independent variables are highly intercorrelated. When variables are highly intercorrelated the results obtained through multiple regression are not reliable and therefore can be misinterpreted. The multiple regression analysis used the forward methodology. Under this methodology the independent variables are entered into the analysis only if they meet certain statistical criteria. The order of inclusion is determined by the respective contribution of each variable to explained variance.

7.1 Elementary Schools

The 14 factors associated with elementary school library and school characteristics were entered into a multiple regression analysis as independent variables. TAAS performance was the dependent variable. Five factors explained 31 percent of the variance associated with elementary school TAAS performance. The five factors included:

Factor 4: Student Ethnic and Economic Composition
  • Percent of LEP students
  • Percent of economically disadvantaged students
  • Percent of white students
  • Percent of Hispanic students
Factor 9: Percent African American Students
Percent of African American Students
Factor 10: Library Technology Resources
  • Library computers connected to a modem per 100 students
  • Library software packages per 100 students
Factor 11: Asian American Students
Percent of Asian American students
Factor 8: Library Financial Resources
  • Number of volumes purchased in 1999-00 per 100 students
  • Library operational expenditures per 100 students

Factor 4-Student Ethnic and Economic Composition--accounted for 21.4 percent of the variance on TAAS performance at the elementary school level. Factor 9-African American Students-accounted for 3.7 percent of the variance. Factor 10-Library Technology Resources-accounted for 2.5 percent of the variance. Factor 11-Asian American Students-accounted for 1.8 percent of the variance. Factor 8-Library Financial Resources-accounted for 1.5 percent of the variance. Of the 31 percent of the variance in TAAS performance explained, student demographic and economic characteristics accounted for 26.9 percent of the variance and library variables accounted for four percent.

Table IV.25 Multiple Regression Analysis: Elementary School Libraries
Factors R R Square Change Statistics
R


Square


Change
F


Change
Df1 Df2 Sig F


Change
Factor 4 .463 .214 .214 49.842 1 183 .000
Factor 9 .501 .251 .037 8.922 1 182 .003
Factor 10 .525 .276 .025 6.204 1 181 .014
Factor 11 .542 .294 .018 4.590 1 180 .034
Factor 8 .556 .309 .015 3.895 1 179 .050



Table IV.25.1 Multiple Regression Analysis: Elementary School Libraries
Factors Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. Collinearity Statistics
B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF
Constant


Factor 4
86.879


-5.116
.727


.725



-.463
119.583


-7.060
.000


.000



1.000



1.000
Constant


Factor 4


Factor 9
86.816


-5.146


2.176
.712


.710


.729



-.465


.192
122.003


-7.252


2.987
.000


.000


.000



1.000


1.000



1.000


1.000
Constant


Factor 4


Factor 9


Factor 10
86.963


-5.237


2.237


2.234
.704


.701


.719


.897



-.474


.197


.158
123.510


-7.474


3.112


2.491
.000


.000


.002


.014



.997


.999


.996



1.003


1.001


1.004
Constant


Factor 4


Factor 9


Factor 10


Factor 11
86.923


-5.177


2.160


2.242


1.487
.697


.694


.713


.888


.694



-.468


.190


.158


.134
124.627


-7.455


3.032


2.524


2.142
.000


.000


.003


.012


.034



.995


.996


.996


.996



1.005


1.004


1.004


1.004
Constant


Factor 4


Factor 9


Factor 10


Factor 11


Factor 8
86.909


-5.151


2.074


2.210


1.500


1.363
.692


.689


.708


.881


.688


.690



-.466


.183


.156


.136


.123
125.597


-7.477


2.928


2.507


2.178


1.973
.000


.000


.004


.013


.031


.050



.995


.992


.996


.996


.996



1.005


1.008


1.004


1.004


1.004

7.2 Middle/Junior High School

The 15 factors associated with middle/junior high school library and school characteristics were entered into a multiple regression analysis as independent variables. TAAS performance was the dependent variable. Two factors explained 48 percent of the variance associated with middle/junior high school TAAS performance. The two factors included:

Factor 4: Student Ethnic and Economic Composition
  • Percent of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) students
  • Percent of economically disadvantaged students
  • Percent of white students
  • Percent of Hispanic students
Factor 7: Collaboration and Training
  • Identifying materials for instructional units developed by teachers
  • Providing information skills instruction to individuals or groups

Factor 4-Student Ethnic and Economic Composition--accounted for 43.7 percent of the variance on TAAS performance at the middle/junior high school level. Factor 7-Collaboration and Training-accounted for 3.9 percent of the variance.

Table IV.26 Multiple Regression Analysis: Middle/Junior High School Libraries
Factors R R Square Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change Df1 Df2 Sig F Change
Factor 4 .661 .437 .437 65.288 1 84 .000
Factor 7 .690 .477 .039 6.245 1 83 .014



Table IV.26.1 Multiple Regression Analysis: Middle/Junior High School Libraries
Factors Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized


Coefficients
t Sig. Collinearity Statistics
B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF
Constant


Factor 4
89.407


4.678
.576


.579



.661
155.341


8.080
.000


.000



1.000



1.000
Constant


Factor 4


Factor 7
89.407


4.678


1.404
.558


.562


.562



.661


.198
160.118


8.329


2.499
.000


.000


.014



1.000


1.000



1.000


1.000

7.3 High Schools

The 11 factors associated with high school library and school characteristics were entered into a multiple regression analysis as independent variables. TAAS performance was the dependent variable. Four factors explained 64 percent of the variance associated with high school TAAS performance. The four factors included:

Factor 4: Student Ethnic and Economic Composition
  • Percent of LEP students
  • Percent of economically disadvantaged students
  • Percent of white students
  • Percent of Hispanic students
Factor 2: Library and School Staffing and Print Resources
  • Library staff per 100 students
  • Library staff hours per 100 students
  • Library hours of operation per 100 students
  • Volumes per students
  • Current subscriptions to magazines and newspapers per 100 students
  • School dollars per student
  • Student-teacher ratio
Factor 7: Planning with and Training Teachers
  • Planning instructional units with teachers
  • Providing staff development to teachers
Factor 9: African American students
Percent of African American students

Factor 4-Student Ethnic and Economic Composition--accounted for 53 percent of the variance on TAAS performance at the high school level. Factor 2--Library and School Staffing and Print Resources-accounted for 4.8 percent of the variance. Factor 7-Planning with and Training Teachers-accounted for 3.4 percent of the variance. Factor 9-Percent of African American Students-accounted for 2.4 percent of TAAS performance. The library factors explained 8.2 percent of the variance.

Table IV.27 Multiple Regression Analysis: High School Libraries
Factors R R Square Change Statistics
R Square


Change
F


Change
Df1 Df2 Sig F


Change
Factor 4 .728 .530 .530 111.834 1 99 .000
Factor 2 .760 .578 .048 11.060 1 98 .001
Factor 7 .783 .612 .034 8.570 1 97 .004
Factor 9 .798 .637 .024 6.455 1 96 .013



Table IV.27.1 Multiple Regression Analysis: High School Libraries
Factors Unstandardized Cofficients Standard


Coefficients
t Sig. Collinearity Statistics
B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF
Constant


Factor 4
89.971


-6.192
.583


.586



-.728
154.429


-10.575
.000


.000



1.000



1.000
Constant


Factor 4


Factor 2
89.971


-6.192


1.855
.555


.558


.558



-.728


.218
162.085


-11.099


3.326
.000


.000


.001



1.000


1.000



1.000


1.000
Constant


Factor 4


Factor 2


Factor 7
89.971


-6.192


1.855


1.573
.535


.537


.537


.537



-.728


.218


.185
168.229


-11.520


3.452


2.927
.000


.000


.001


.004



1.000


1.000


1.000



1.000


1.000


1.000
Constant


Factor 4


Factor 2


Factor 7


Factor 9
89.971


-6.192


1.855


1.573


-1.329
.520


.523


.523


.523


.523



-.728


.218


.185


-.156
172.895


-11.840


3.547


3.009


-2.541
.000


.000


.001


.004


.013



1.000


1.000


1.000


1.000



1.000


1.000


1.000


1.000

Continue on to Chapter 4, Section 8

 

Page last modified: March 2, 2011