7. The Contribution of Library Resources and Activities to TAAS Performance
The last step in the analysis addressed the contribution that library resources and activities make to TAAS performance. The contribution of library resources and activities to TAAS performance was determined through a multiple regression analysis using TAAS performance as the dependent variable and the library and school/community factors as the independent variables. The factors were used in order to avoid multicollinearity. Multicollinearity is a situation in which some or all the independent variables are highly intercorrelated. When variables are highly intercorrelated the results obtained through multiple regression are not reliable and therefore can be misinterpreted. The multiple regression analysis used the forward methodology. Under this methodology the independent variables are entered into the analysis only if they meet certain statistical criteria. The order of inclusion is determined by the respective contribution of each variable to explained variance.
7.1 Elementary Schools
The 14 factors associated with elementary school library and school characteristics were entered into a multiple regression analysis as independent variables. TAAS performance was the dependent variable. Five factors explained 31 percent of the variance associated with elementary school TAAS performance. The five factors included:
 Factor 4: Student Ethnic and Economic Composition

 Percent of LEP students
 Percent of economically disadvantaged students
 Percent of white students
 Percent of Hispanic students
 Factor 9: Percent African American Students
 Percent of African American Students
 Factor 10: Library Technology Resources

 Library computers connected to a modem per 100 students
 Library software packages per 100 students
 Factor 11: Asian American Students
 Percent of Asian American students
 Factor 8: Library Financial Resources

 Number of volumes purchased in 199900 per 100 students
 Library operational expenditures per 100 students
Factor 4Student Ethnic and Economic Compositionaccounted for 21.4 percent of the variance on TAAS performance at the elementary school level. Factor 9African American Studentsaccounted for 3.7 percent of the variance. Factor 10Library Technology Resourcesaccounted for 2.5 percent of the variance. Factor 11Asian American Studentsaccounted for 1.8 percent of the variance. Factor 8Library Financial Resourcesaccounted for 1.5 percent of the variance. Of the 31 percent of the variance in TAAS performance explained, student demographic and economic characteristics accounted for 26.9 percent of the variance and library variables accounted for four percent.
Factors  R  R Square  Change Statistics  

R Square Change 
F Change 
Df1  Df2  Sig F Change 

Factor 4  .463  .214  .214  49.842  1  183  .000 
Factor 9  .501  .251  .037  8.922  1  182  .003 
Factor 10  .525  .276  .025  6.204  1  181  .014 
Factor 11  .542  .294  .018  4.590  1  180  .034 
Factor 8  .556  .309  .015  3.895  1  179  .050 
Factors  Unstandardized Coefficients  Standardized Coefficients  t  Sig.  Collinearity Statistics  

B  Std. Error  Beta  Tolerance  VIF  
Constant Factor 4 
86.879 5.116 
.727 .725 
.463 
119.583 7.060 
.000 .000 
1.000 
1.000 
Constant Factor 4 Factor 9 
86.816 5.146 2.176 
.712 .710 .729 
.465 .192 
122.003 7.252 2.987 
.000 .000 .000 
1.000 1.000 
1.000 1.000 
Constant Factor 4 Factor 9 Factor 10 
86.963 5.237 2.237 2.234 
.704 .701 .719 .897 
.474 .197 .158 
123.510 7.474 3.112 2.491 
.000 .000 .002 .014 
.997 .999 .996 
1.003 1.001 1.004 
Constant Factor 4 Factor 9 Factor 10 Factor 11 
86.923 5.177 2.160 2.242 1.487 
.697 .694 .713 .888 .694 
.468 .190 .158 .134 
124.627 7.455 3.032 2.524 2.142 
.000 .000 .003 .012 .034 
.995 .996 .996 .996 
1.005 1.004 1.004 1.004 
Constant Factor 4 Factor 9 Factor 10 Factor 11 Factor 8 
86.909 5.151 2.074 2.210 1.500 1.363 
.692 .689 .708 .881 .688 .690 
.466 .183 .156 .136 .123 
125.597 7.477 2.928 2.507 2.178 1.973 
.000 .000 .004 .013 .031 .050 
.995 .992 .996 .996 .996 
1.005 1.008 1.004 1.004 1.004 
7.2 Middle/Junior High School
The 15 factors associated with middle/junior high school library and school characteristics were entered into a multiple regression analysis as independent variables. TAAS performance was the dependent variable. Two factors explained 48 percent of the variance associated with middle/junior high school TAAS performance. The two factors included:
 Factor 4: Student Ethnic and Economic Composition

 Percent of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) students
 Percent of economically disadvantaged students
 Percent of white students
 Percent of Hispanic students
 Factor 7: Collaboration and Training

 Identifying materials for instructional units developed by teachers
 Providing information skills instruction to individuals or groups
Factor 4Student Ethnic and Economic Compositionaccounted for 43.7 percent of the variance on TAAS performance at the middle/junior high school level. Factor 7Collaboration and Trainingaccounted for 3.9 percent of the variance.
Factors  R  R Square  Change Statistics  

R Square Change  F Change  Df1  Df2  Sig F Change  
Factor 4  .661  .437  .437  65.288  1  84  .000 
Factor 7  .690  .477  .039  6.245  1  83  .014 
Factors  Unstandardized Coefficients  Standardized Coefficients 
t  Sig.  Collinearity Statistics  

B  Std. Error  Beta  Tolerance  VIF  
Constant Factor 4 
89.407 4.678 
.576 .579 
.661 
155.341 8.080 
.000 .000 
1.000 
1.000 
Constant Factor 4 Factor 7 
89.407 4.678 1.404 
.558 .562 .562 
.661 .198 
160.118 8.329 2.499 
.000 .000 .014 
1.000 1.000 
1.000 1.000 
7.3 High Schools
The 11 factors associated with high school library and school characteristics were entered into a multiple regression analysis as independent variables. TAAS performance was the dependent variable. Four factors explained 64 percent of the variance associated with high school TAAS performance. The four factors included:
 Factor 4: Student Ethnic and Economic Composition

 Percent of LEP students
 Percent of economically disadvantaged students
 Percent of white students
 Percent of Hispanic students
 Factor 2: Library and School Staffing and Print Resources

 Library staff per 100 students
 Library staff hours per 100 students
 Library hours of operation per 100 students
 Volumes per students
 Current subscriptions to magazines and newspapers per 100 students
 School dollars per student
 Studentteacher ratio
 Factor 7: Planning with and Training Teachers

 Planning instructional units with teachers
 Providing staff development to teachers
 Factor 9: African American students
 Percent of African American students
Factor 4Student Ethnic and Economic Compositionaccounted for 53 percent of the variance on TAAS performance at the high school level. Factor 2Library and School Staffing and Print Resourcesaccounted for 4.8 percent of the variance. Factor 7Planning with and Training Teachersaccounted for 3.4 percent of the variance. Factor 9Percent of African American Studentsaccounted for 2.4 percent of TAAS performance. The library factors explained 8.2 percent of the variance.
Factors  R  R Square  Change Statistics  

R Square Change 
F Change 
Df1  Df2  Sig F Change 

Factor 4  .728  .530  .530  111.834  1  99  .000 
Factor 2  .760  .578  .048  11.060  1  98  .001 
Factor 7  .783  .612  .034  8.570  1  97  .004 
Factor 9  .798  .637  .024  6.455  1  96  .013 
Factors  Unstandardized Cofficients  Standard Coefficients 
t  Sig.  Collinearity Statistics  

B  Std. Error  Beta  Tolerance  VIF  
Constant Factor 4 
89.971 6.192 
.583 .586 
.728 
154.429 10.575 
.000 .000 
1.000 
1.000 
Constant Factor 4 Factor 2 
89.971 6.192 1.855 
.555 .558 .558 
.728 .218 
162.085 11.099 3.326 
.000 .000 .001 
1.000 1.000 
1.000 1.000 
Constant Factor 4 Factor 2 Factor 7 
89.971 6.192 1.855 1.573 
.535 .537 .537 .537 
.728 .218 .185 
168.229 11.520 3.452 2.927 
.000 .000 .001 .004 
1.000 1.000 1.000 
1.000 1.000 1.000 
Constant Factor 4 Factor 2 Factor 7 Factor 9 
89.971 6.192 1.855 1.573 1.329 
.520 .523 .523 .523 .523 
.728 .218 .185 .156 
172.895 11.840 3.547 3.009 2.541 
.000 .000 .001 .004 .013 
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 
Continue on to Chapter 4, Section 8