School Library Programs:
Standards and Guidelines for Texas
Texas Administrative Code
Title 13. Cultural Resources
Part I. Texas State Library and Archives Commission
Chapter 4. School Library Programs
Subchapter A. Standards and Guidelines
School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas
Texas Administrative Code
Title 13. Cultural Resources
Part I. Texas State Library and Archives Commission
Chapter 4. School Library Programs
Standards and Guidelines
Respectfully submitted October 2003 by the Steering Committee to Revise School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas: Barbara Bertoldo, Barry Bishop, Mary Lankford, Christine McNew, JoAnne Moore, Julie Todaro.
Legislative Mandate: Texas Education Code §33.021:
The Texas State Library and Archives Commission, in consultation with the State Board of Education, shall adopt standards for school library services. A school district shall consider the standards in developing, implementing, or expanding library services.
School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas became effective on July 17, 1997. The goal of this revision is to align the School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas with additional provisions of the Texas Education Code, the Texas Administrative Code, and national standards for school library programs, and to provide a current tool for evaluating and improving school library programs.
The revised School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas are aligned with:
- State Board for Educator Certification Guidelines for Certification of School Librarians (Texas Administrative Code, Title 19, Part 7, Chapter 237, Subchapter B, §239.55, effective January 23, 2001).
- Long Range Plan for Technology 1996-2010 (Texas Education Code §32.001, effective 1988, revised 1996).
- Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (Texas Education Code §28.001, effective 1998).
- Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning (American Association of School Librarians, 1998), and
- Library Media Standards for Teachers of Students Ages 3-18 (National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2001).
Basis for the School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas
Student achievement is the objective of school library programs. The School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas originates in the ongoing effort to support effective schools, results-oriented education, and accountability. These aims are at the forefront of the school librarianship.
Standards are a professional tool for objective assessment based on recognized measures of performance. The revised Standards and Guidelines for Texas is based on research that shows a correlation between school library resources and services and greater student achievement. In preparation for revising the Standards and Guidelines, the Texas State Library and Archives Commission conducted a study entitled, Texas School Libraries: Standards, Resources, Services, and Students’ Performance (Smith, 2001). The report of the study is available on the Texas State Library and Archives web site at www.tsl.texas.gov/ld/pubs/schlibsurvey/index.html. The findings of the study, which are similar to results of research in other states, are summarized in the article “Texas School Libraries: Standards, Resources, Services, and Students’ Performance” (Lankford and McNew, 2001).
The Revision Process
The goal of this revision is to align the School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas with additional provisions of the Texas Education Code, the Administrative Code, and national standards for school library programs, and to provide a current tool for evaluating and improving school library programs.
The Standards and Guidelines for Texas were revised by a Committee composed of 80 individuals representing all of the Regional Education Service Centers in the State of Texas. Revision Committee members included library and district coordinators, Regional Education Service Center staff, principals, school board members, citizens, and university and college representatives. Staff from the Texas State Library and Archives Commission and the Texas Education Agency served as Co-Chairs of the Steering Committee and coordinated the revision process. Librarians and library administrators throughout Texas provided input and recommended revisions through meetings at conferences and through web-based discussion groups. Additionally, a draft of the Standards and Guidelines was posted on the Texas State Library web site for comment. The process through which the Standards and Guidelines and Guidelines for Texas were revised is described in the article, “Revising School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas” (McNew, 2001). A complete list of committee members is included as a supplemental resource.
A complete bibliography of resources that were consulted in the revision of School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas is included as a supplemental resource to this document. Four additional bibliographies that resulted from the revision of this document are also included: 1) Statistics and Research on the Impact of Library Programs; 2) Professional Resources for Teaching and Information Literacy; 3) Professional Resources for Library Program Management; and 4) Professional Resources for Collection Development and Program Design.
A Glossary of Terms is also included as a supplemental resource.
Level of Support of Student Achievement
The State Board for Educator Certification (SBEC) Guidelines for Certification of Texas School Librarians describes six major components for Learner-Centered school library programs. The School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas is built on the framework of these six Learner-Centered components.
The Standards and Guidelines for Texas establish four Levels of Support of Student Achievement for school library programs. Three of the Levels of Support of Student Achievement meet standards, one falls below standards. The Levels are identified as Exemplary, Recognized, Acceptable, and Below Standard. Through self-assessment, school libraries may find that they have achieved varying levels for the six components. Some libraries may be below the minimum Level of Support of Student Achievement in one or more components. However, all programs can improve.
The Six Major Components of School Library Standards
The six Learner-Centered components for school library programs designated in the SBEC Guidelines for Certification of Texas School Librarians are:
- Standard I. Learner-Centered Teaching and Learning
- Standard II. Learner-Centered Program Leadership and Management
- Standard III. Learner-Centered Technology and Information Access
- Standard IV. Learner-Centered Library Environment
- Standard V. Learner-Centered Connections to Community
- Standard VI. Learner-Centered Information Science and Librarianship
Goals and Principles of the Six Major Components
A Goal is stated for each of the Learner-Centered standards. Each Goal is followed by Principles that incorporate specific requirements of the SBEC Guidelines for Certification of Texas School Librarians and the additional documents listed above.
Library Program Assessment
Standards and Guidelines for Texas provides a framework for self-assessment and strategic planning for the library program. The Strategies for Librarians assess the level of resources and services of the library program. The Strategies for Librarians refer to supplemental resources for quantitative and qualitative measurement of the library program. The supplemental resources are 1) Output Measures that assess the level of use of the library program, and 2) Evidence-Based Measures that assess level of success of the school library program in supporting students in learning the State mandated curriculum, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), and demonstrating mastery of that curriculum on the state mandated test, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS). Evaluation of a library program based on the Strategies for Librarians, Output Measures, and Evidence-Based Measures may be used for planning, improving the library program, and measuring success in achieving the program goal of supporting student achievement.
In accordance with Education Code § 33.021, these Standards and Guidelines are recommended, not mandated. They are designed as a means by which a school may examine the library program and begin to work toward results that are consistent with educational objectives.
Strategies for Librarians
For each of the six Standards, School Library Programs: Standards and Guidelines for Texas includes Strategies for Librarians that describe Exemplary, Recognized, Acceptable, and Below Standard library programs. The Strategies assess the level of resources and services available through the library program and may serve as a guide for improving the program.
In the Strategies for Librarians, the six Learner-Centered Standards are designated with Roman numerals. A goal is stated for each of the six Standards. The Principles for each of the six Standards are designated by Arabic numerals. Every Principle is followed by Strategies for Librarians that are designated with capital letters. For example:
Standard I. Learner-Centered Teaching and Learning
Principle 1. The librarian promotes critical thinking and problem solving by integrating information literacy into the curriculum.
Strategies for Librarians: A, B, C, D ...
Benefits that students will experience as a result of the Strategies are listed at the end of each Principle.
Output Measures for school library programs are provided as supplemental resources that may be used to quantify the level of use of library programs and services by staff, students, and the community. Outputs are quantities of resources and activities that the library program provides in order to fulfill its mission. They measure program productivity. When compared year-to-year, Output Measures show how usage of the services and resources the library program has changed over time. Seven Output Measures are recommended as supplemental resources to the Standards and Guidelines for Texas.
- Measure 1. Percentage of Planning Requests Filled or Modified
- Measure 2. Percentage of Teaching Requests Filled or Modified
- Measure 3. Percentage of Curriculum Requests Addressed with Print Resources
- Measure 4. Percentage of Curriculum Requests Addressed with Internet Resources
- Measure 5. Percentage of Curriculum Requests Addressed with Subscription Databases
- Measure 6. Average Number of Print Resources Utilized Per Student Per Week
- Measure 7. Average Number of Print, Internet, and Subscription Databases Utilized Per Student Per Week
The seven Output Measures were developed based on information provided in the book, Output Measures for School Library Media Programs by Frances Bryant Bradburn. Instructions for Data Collection, a Data Collection Sheet, and a Worksheet for Calculating Output Measures are included in the Output Measures section.
Evidenced-Based Measures for school library programs are provided as supplemental resources that may be used to determine the impact of the library program on student achievement. Evidence-Based Evaluation is a systematic method of assessing the extent to which a program has achieved its intended result. Student achievement is the objective of school library programs. The Evidence-Based Evaluation Plan included as a supplemental resource to the Standards and Guidelines for Texas is designed to assess the impact of school library resources and services on student achievement. Evidence-Based Evaluation answers two important questions: 1) How has the library program made a difference to students, and 2) How are students better off as a result of experiencing the library program?
The Evidence-Based Measures included as supplemental resources are designed to reveal 1) the extent to which the library program supports student learning of the state mandated curriculum (TEKS) and 2) the extent of student success in meeting the passing standard on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) as a result of library instruction.
Three Evidenced-Based Measures will be used to assess the success of the library program in achieving these goals.
Measure #1. Students and staff have increased access during and beyond the instructional day to a balanced, carefully selected, and systematically organized collection of current and relevant print and electronic library resources that are sufficient to meet their needs in support of mastering Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) student expectations in all subject areas.
Measure #2. Students and staff gain increased knowledge of TEKS student expectations through ongoing instruction in the integration of information technology and information literacy as planned and presented collaboratively by teachers and librarians.
Measure #3. Students’ Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores demonstrate achievement as related to the TEKS student expectations that are selected for improvement and either taught by the librarian individually or in collaboration with other teachers. Note: TAKS does not test all TEKS expectations.
Recommended Philosophy and Practice for Basing Library Instruction on TEKS Student Expectations
Librarians have long taught the skills and abilities outlined in the Technology Applications TEKS, particularly in the K-5 grade levels. It is recommended that librarians review the Technology Applications TEKS to fully integrate these skills into lesson plans taught independently and collaboratively. The Technology Applications TEKS are on the TEA web site. In addition to the Technology Applications TEKS, librarians influence student learning of TEKS student expectations in all curriculum areas that are tested on the TAKS tests through providing resources and instruction, and through collaboratively planning and presenting lessons with teachers.
Through Table 1, “The TAKS objectives and the related TEKS student expectations tested under each TAKS objective that may be reasonably expected to be influenced or taught by the library program," librarians identify the TEKS student expectations that may be influenced by the library program and that are tested on the TAKS test. They enthusiastically and proactively base their instruction on these TEKS student expectations. Additionally, they provide instruction in many other areas. They continually educate the school community and the community at large that librarians play a key role in student learning of the State Curriculum.
Librarians support student success in learning TEKS through the following:
- Identification of existing library resources (print and electronic) that support curriculum;
- Purchase of resources to support the curriculum;
- Providing access to library resources for curriculum support;
- Alignment of learning objectives of the library's information literacy program with TEKS student expectations;
- Collaboration with classroom teachers to design and deliver instruction for curriculum support;
- Design of professional development for administrators, classroom faculty and overall school community.
Vision of Texas School Libraries
Texas students will attain knowledge and skills to become accomplished readers, independent learners, critical thinkers, creative problem solvers, and informed citizens through the expertise of school librarians and the use of resources and services provided by school library programs.
Mission of Texas School Libraries
The mission of the school library program and school librarian is to ensure that students, teachers, administrators, and staff are effective users of ideas and information.
This mission is accomplished by:
- Providing intellectual and physical access to materials in all formats;
- Providing instruction to foster competence and stimulate interest in reading, viewing, and using information and ideas;
- Collaborating with other educators to plan, design, teach, and evaluate information literacy learning experiences to meet the needs of all students;
- Demonstrating effective leadership strategies in the administration of the program and in making connections to the broader learning community.
Adapted from Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning. Copyright © 1998 American Library Association and Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
Core Values Of Texas School Libraries
- Academic Achievement = Texas school libraries provide a quality library program that results in improved student academic achievement.
- Access For All = Texas school libraries provide equitable and universal access to all members of the school learning community.
- Reading = Texas school libraries encourage and engage students to read, view, and listen for understanding and enjoyment in an environment that fosters and supports a passion for reading, learning, and pursuing individual interests.
- Lifelong Learning = Texas school libraries teach skills and habits of “learning how to learn” so that students become self-reliant, independent adults, and responsible, contributing citizens.
- Technology = Texas school libraries embrace and implement technology and teach students to use it responsibly and effectively to help them acquire the knowledge and skills required for the 21st century.
- Information Literacy = Texas school libraries assist students in accessing information efficiently and effectively and teach students to recognize that utilizing valid and relevant information is central to meeting the opportunities and challenges of academic success and day-to-day living.
- Innovation = Texas school libraries investigate, initiate, and implement positive change and new ideas that will effectively prepare students for life.
- Intellectual Freedom = Texas school libraries promote, develop, and facilitate age-appropriate access to all expressions of knowledge, opinion, and intellectual activity.
Summary of Goals and Principles for Learner-Centered Standards
Standard I. Learner-Centered Teaching and Learning
Goal: To promote the integration of curriculum, resources, and teaching strategies to ensure the success of all students as the effective creators and users of ideas and information, enabling them to become lifelong learners.
Principle 1. The librarian models and promotes collaborative instruction with teachers, as determined by the independent and diverse needs of all learners, and within the context of state curriculum standards.
Principle 2. The librarian works collaboratively with students, teachers, and the community to promote local, state, and national reading initiatives that encourage learners to read, write, view, speak, and listen for understanding and enjoyment.
Principle 3. The librarian collaborates, designs, and provides ongoing instruction for staff and students in the integration of information technology and information literacy, emphasizing and modeling the ethical use of resources.
Standard II. Learner-Centered Program Leadership and Management
Goal: To demonstrate effective school library program leadership and management throughout the school, the district, and in local, state, and national activities and associations.
Principle 1. Planning: As an advocate for libraries, the librarian leads in the development and implementation of a library vision, mission, goals, objectives, and strategic plan that incorporate sound policies and practices.
Principle 2. Organizing and Staffing: The librarian manages staff, volunteers, and partners to support the curriculum, to satisfy learners’ diverse needs, and to encourage lifelong learning.
Principle 3. Budgets/Funding: The librarian advocates for funding and manages school library program budgets to build and maintain a program with resources and services that support a curriculum designed to develop information-literate students who achieve success in the classroom and function effectively in the community.
Principle 4. Research/Assessment/Reporting: The librarian manages a successful program by demonstrating the value of the library program through research, data collection, assessment, evaluation, and dissemination of information about services and resources.
Standard III. Learner-Centered Technology and Information Access
Goal: To promote the success of all students and staff by facilitating the access, use, and integration of technology, telecommunications, and information systems to enrich the curriculum and enhance learning.
Principle 1. The library media program provides a balanced, carefully selected, and systematically organized collection of print and electronic library resources that are sufficient to meet students’ needs in all subject areas and that are continuously monitored for currency and relevancy.
Principle 2. The librarian models and promotes the highest standards of conduct, ethics, and integrity in the use of the Web and other print and electronic resources.
Principle 3. The librarian employs existing and emerging technologies to access, evaluate, and disseminate information for integration into instructional programs.
Principle 4. The librarian models information problem solving processes while providing formal and informal instruction about reference and research techniques.
Standard IV. Learner-Centered Library Environment
Goal: To provide design guidelines for facilities to allow for manipulation, production, and communication of information by all members of the learning community.
Principle 1. The design of the school library is aligned with the educational objectives of the learning community. The library environment is designed for flexible access and supports all educational objectives of the library program. Educational specifications for any renovation or proposed new facility will include a description of the proposed project expressing the range of issues and alternatives, in accordance with 19 TAC 61.1036, School Facilities Standards for Construction on or after January 1, 2004, Subchapter CC, Commissioner’s Rules Concerning School Facilities.
Principle 2. The library is designed to serve as a flexible, functional, and barrier-free simultaneous-use facility for individuals, small groups, and classes as described by state and federal guidelines. The library is also designed to maximize the use of available space to permit displays of student, faculty, and community-produced materials, and collections. The facility provides all members of the learning community opportunities to explore and meet their information and recreational needs during and beyond the school day. The library provides an exemplary level of safety, security, and an age-appropriate facility for all individuals, small groups, and classes.
Standard V. Learner-Centered Connections to Community
Goal: To provide information equity by working for universal literacy; defending intellectual freedom; preserving and making accessible the human record; ensuring access to print and electronic resources; connecting school faculty, staff, and students to community resources and services as needed; and by connecting community members to school resources and services as appropriate.
Principle 1. The librarian develops a school library program that offers students, faculty, and staff, families, partners, and community constituents opportunities for participation and collaboration in the library and educational community. The librarian promotes/encourages broad school and community-based advocacy for the school library program to support student success.
Principle 2. The librarian facilitates broad access to library resources and provides opportunities for use for students, faculty and staff, families, partners, and community constituents.
Principle 3. The librarian is knowledgeable about learning differences and ethnically and culturally diverse interests of the school and local community and develops a school library program that responds to these unique community characteristics.
Principle 4. The librarian, in partnership with community organizations, develops, maintains, and markets the vision, goals, and needs of the school library program to the broadest community constituency to promote the library and student success.
Standard VI. Learner-Centered Information Science and Librarianship
Goal: To promote the success of all students and staff by: providing information equity; working for universal literacy; defending intellectual freedom; preserving and making accessible the heritage of all cultures; and ensuring that equal access to resources in all formats is available for everyone.
Principle 1. The librarian works collaboratively with other information professionals in support of the library program, student achievement, and the profession, and understands the role of all types of libraries in an integrated learning environment.
Principle 2. The librarian creates a school library program that is recognized as the central element in the intellectual life of the school as evidenced by use of statistical measures to evaluate and improve the program.
Principle 3. The librarian applies and implements the principles and concepts of collection development: evaluation, selection, acquisition, and organization of information, and employs standard bibliographic and retrieval techniques.
Principle 4. The librarian evaluates and selects existing and emergent technologies to support the library program in coordination with the Texas Education Agency’s Long-Range Plan for Technology and the campus STaR Chart.
Principle 5. The librarian communicates effectively with students and staff to determine information needs and applies knowledge of literature to guide development of independent readers.
Principle 6. The librarian demonstrates ethical behavior and promotes the principles of intellectual freedom, information access, privacy, and proprietary rights.
Principle 7. The librarian engages in continuous self-evaluation and self-directed learning for professional growth by participating in and contributing to professional associations and publications.