Texas Tragedies That Inspired Innovation

Stephanie Brown, Reference Archivist

Extra! Extra! Eyes of the World on Texas, the new exhibit now on display in the Texas State Library Commission (TSLAC) lobby, features major news events of the past that made headlines beyond the state’s borders. The historic events were sometimes triumphant, such as the legendary moon landing in 1969, but many were tragic. After such devastating occurrences as the New London school explosion in 1937 and the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, there were some positive outcomes meant to help prevent future tragedies. From legislation to technical innovations, this exhibit includes some of the results still in use today. For instance, Texans built a seawall to protect citizens from coastal flooding, created a network of radar stations to improve storm detection, and passed laws regulating the dispensing and odorization of natural gas. These innovations made an impact that laid the groundwork for changes on a national level.

colorized postcard of a scene at the Galveston sea wall. The text reads, The Sea Wall Boulevard, Beach and Murdock Bath House, Galveston, Texas. Pedestrians walk along a boardwalk atop the sea wall and others on the sand below.
Sea Wall Boulevard in Galveston, 1915. Postcards of Texas collection, AC61/8-152, PP105.

The Great Storm of 1900

The 1900 Galveston Hurricane, the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, killed an estimated  8,000 people and damaged or destroyed more than 3,500 homes and buildings. At the time of the great storm, the highest point of elevation on the island was 8.7 feet above sea level. The 15-foot storm surge easily inundated the island, causing widespread erosion and destruction of property.

As Galvestonians began the slow process of recovery and rebuilding following the devasting storm, leaders looked for ways to prevent future catastrophes and loss of life. The Texas Legislature passed a resolution signed by Governor Joseph D. Sayers on September 7, 1901, allowing for the construction of a seawall to protect the island from deadly storm surge. Legislation also authorized Galveston County to issue bonds to raise funds to build the seawall.

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Texas Governors: Indelible Ann

By Traci Reece, Reference Librarian

As legislators and staff return to the Texas State Capitol for the start of the 88th Texas Legislature, we’re looking back at the legendary Texas Governor Ann W. Richards. Thirty-two years ago this month, Governor Richards was inaugurated as the 45th Governor of Texas. The Texas State Library and Archives Commission has in our collections papers, photographs, and publications connected to Texas governors dating back to the first chief executive of the state, including Richards.

Book cover with illustration of Ann Richards in profile with bluebonnets decorating the bottom portion
Cover: Indelible Ann: The Larger-Than-Life Story of Governor Ann Richards by Meghan P. Brown and Carlynn Whitt

Last fall, TSLAC’s Texas Center for the Book selected as the Texas Great Read for 2022 the new picture book biography about Governor Richards, Indelible Ann: The Larger-Than-Life Story of Governor Ann Richards by Meghan P. Browne and illustrator Carlynn Whitt. The author spoke about her work and the importance of the TSLAC collections in supporting her research in the promotional video for the Texas Great Read, which also includes images of Richards from our State Archives.

Texas Center for the Book interview with Meghan P. Browne for the 2022 Texas Great Read, Indelible Ann.

Browne is not the first author to publish a book on Richards. Our library stacks contain numerous titles focusing on the governor, some of which are currently on display in the Reference Reading Room. See below for a list of featured titles.



Call Number


A love letter to Texas women

Bird, Sarah

Z UA380.8 B532Lo

Texas Documents,

e-Book online

Ann Richards : “a woman’s place is in the dome”

Stumpff, April D.

920.7 R390a YALL

Reference Reading Room Collection

Capitol women : Texas female legislators, 1923-1999

Jones, Nancy Baker

328.764 J722c


Claytie and the lady : Ann Richards, gender, and politics in Texas

Tolleson-Rinehart, Sue.

976.4063 T578C


Indelible Ann : the larger-than-life story of Governor Ann Richards

Browne, Meghan P.

976.4063 B814in YALL

Reference Reading Room Collection

Let me tell you what I’ve learned : Texas wisewomen speak

Pierce, Paula Jo

920.72 P611L

Main, e-Book online

Let the people in : the life and times of Ann Richards

Reid, Jan.

Z UA380.8 R272LE

Texas Documents, e-Book online

Molly Ivins can’t say that, can she?

Ivins, Molly

070.92 Iv5m


Storming the statehouse : running for governor with Ann Richards and Dianne Feinstein

Morris, Celia.

923.2764 R39M


Straight from the heart : my life in politics and other places

Richards, Ann.

973.927 R39S


The great Texas wind rush : how George Bush, Ann Richards, and a bunch of tinkerers helped the oil and gas state win the race to wind power 1st ed.

Galbraith, Kate

Z UA380.8 G131gr

Texas Documents, e-Book online

The thorny rose of Texas : an intimate portrait of Governor Ann Richards

Shropshire, Mike.

976.4063 R39S


Where is Sam Houston Buried? : A Tour of the Graves of the Governors of Texas

Swearingen, John

923.2764 SW31w


With Ann : a journey across Texas with a candidate for Governor

Bonar, Ave.

923.2764 R39B


Women and Texas history : selected essays

Downs, Fane

305.4 W8423


To search for these books and more, visit our library catalog. If you are interested in checking out a title from this post, please visit the Reference Desk or contact your local library about borrowing books through the interlibrary loan program. Call us at 512-463-5455 or send an email to ref@tsl.texas.gov with your questions about our collections.

Governor Richards, press conference with Harley Davidson, May 21, 1992. Governor’s activities, 1991-1995, 1992/095-2-1, TSLAC Current Events Photographic Documentation Program Collection. TSLAC.
I did not want my tombstone to read, ”She kept a really clean house. I think I’d like them to remember me by saying, “She opened government to everyone.” Ann Richards, from Indelible Ann: The Larger-Than-Life Story of Governor Ann Richards by Meghan P. Browne and Carlynn Whitt.

Explore Our Collections

Visit us online or at our library to see documents and images from the first century of Texas governors in Texas Governors and their Times, 1846-1946 on exhibit at TSLAC through May 15, 2023.

Sign up for our research webinar, “Researching Texas Governors at TSLAC” scheduled for January 27 at 3:00 p.m.

See more Featured Collections blog posts for additional women’s history topics:

New Exhibit: Texas Governors and Their Times (1846-1946)

The newest public exhibit at the Texas State Library and Archives Commission (TSLAC), Texas Governors and Their Times, 1846-1946, is now on display in the lobby of the Lorenzo de Zavala State Archives and Library Building. Exhibits are free and no reservations are required. Texas Governors and Their Times, 1846-1946 showcases materials from the State Archives documenting the official work and daily business of the state’s chief executive spanning 100 years.

Governor’s Mansion, about 1970-1980. Color slides and transparencies, 1991077/130/001. Texas Tourism and Development Agency records.

Explore how seven governors responded to the issues of their eras through a selection of proclamations, correspondence, photographs, legislation, postcards, and more. As Texas transitioned from an independent republic to the 28th state in the Union, these governors oversaw the growth and development of what would become the second most populous state in the country. Below are a few examples of items on display. The entire exhibit is also available for viewing anytime online in the virtual version of Texas Governors and Their Times.

Although he was born in Ohio, Wilbert Lee “Pappy” O’Daniel loved his adopted state of Texas, where he moved in 1925. He wrote his best-known song, “Beautiful Texas,” in 1933 and recorded it with his band the Light Crust Doughboys. The song was a fixture at O’Daniel’s campaign rallies and at events during his term as governor.

Sheet music for “Beautiful Texas” by W. Lee O’Daniel, 1933. Patriotic songs, Vocal music, Texas sheet music collection, Box 2015/083-7.

Part of the inauguration celebration of Texas governors is the inaugural ball. This small booklet includes a program of the events of the inauguration and a dance card. A woman attending the ball would have used this dance card to record the names of her intended dance partners for each dance of the night.

Inaugural Ball dance card in honor of Governor O.B. Colquitt, January 17, 1911. Inaugurations of Texas Governors, Box 2-23/902. 

This phonograph cylinder contains an early recording of a speech by Governor Hogg. It was donated to the Texas State Archive in 1910 by Oscar Branch Colquitt, who served as governor from 1911 to 1915.

Wax phonograph cylinder, undated. Hogg (James Stephen) speech, Box 2-22/L16a.

“Christmas greetings from the Allreds” sent to the Graham family. James V. Allred served two terms as governor of Texas from 1935-1939. Richard Niles Graham was the grandson of Governor Elisha Pease, and the Graham-Pease family were prominent leaders in Austin.

The Governor’s Mansion, undated. Photographs, Graham (R. Niles) Collection, 1964/306-620.

“We think this new exhibit illustrates the importance of government records, especially those of the state’s highest elected office, to understanding Texas history,” said State Archivist Jelain Chubb. “Historic photographs show us what it was like to be in the governor’s office in 1911, letters of both Union and Confederate military officials as well as civilians give us first-hand accounts of the periods of the Civil War and Reconstruction, and artifacts from inaugurations, like the programs and mementos on display, allow us to imagine what it was like to attend these historic events. The items we preserve in the State Archives really bring history to life.”

Named a National Literary Landmark, the Lorenzo de Zavala State Archives and Library Building is the agency’s flagship located directly east of the Texas Capitol. Lobby exhibits are open to the public Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and the Second Saturday of each month, 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Visit online: www.tsl.texas.gov/lobbyexhibits.

Texas Governors and Their Times will be on view until May 15, 2023.

For questions about our collections and how to access them, please contact the reference desk at ref@tsl.texas.gov or call 512-463-5455.

Discoveries from the Andy Kyle Archeological Collection at the Sam Houston Center

By Lisa Miesch, Archivist/Museum Curator, Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center

Over a period of many years, Liberty, Texas resident and avocational archeologist Andrew James “Andy” Kyle (1915-2014) collected prehistoric artifacts from numerous sites in southeast Texas. He eventually amassed a collection of more than 30,000 prehistoric artifacts from 95 southeast Texas surface sites in nine counties, including Liberty, Polk, Jasper, Tyler, and Hardin Counties. In 1977, he donated his collection to the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center.

Surface collections such as Kyle’s make up much of the archeological record in Texas. Because of erosion and damage from modern construction activities, there is little information available from stratified or buried sites. While not as complete as that from stratified sites, data from surface sites can still be significant. This is especially the case with Kyle’s collection, as he painstakingly documented and recorded his discoveries by site. The sites represent an area between the Trinity and Sabine Rivers and are representative not only of southeast Texas archeology, but include Louisiana influences as well.

Points from the Andy Kyle Collection on display in the Sam Houston Center museum.

In 2017, as the Sam Houston Center was planning the renovation of its museum, the Center requested the Houston Archeological Society (HAS) to examine the Kyle collection and assist in identifying and selecting artifacts for a new exhibit on the prehistory of the Center’s ten-county region. During this process and during subsequent examination of the collection, HAS made numerous discoveries that have increased our knowledge of the earliest inhabitants of southeast Texas, and their investigation continues.

The majority of the artifacts consist of projectile points (stone tools used for arrows, spears, and darts and commonly known as “arrowheads”), but also included are cutting and scraping tools, drills, grinding stones, and pottery. A significant number of items were constructed from heat-treated petrified wood. They range from the Paleoindian (ca. 13,500-8,000 BP*) to the Late Prehistoric periods (ca. 1,400-500 BP).

One of the most significant discoveries from the collection was the presence of Paleoindian projectile points, including the bases of two broken Clovis points. These points are from the Wood Springs site, only 0.4 mile southeast of the Sam Houston Center. (Wood Springs is a minor tributary of the Trinity River). This site was likely a seasonal site for Clovis-era nomadic hunters following big game animals, as opposed to a permanent campsite. The site’s abundant water would have been attractive to humans and animals alike.

Clovis Point 1 (obverse)
Clovis Point 2 (obverse)

The points represent the first reported occurrence of the Clovis culture in Liberty County, documenting the earliest occupation of the area to at least 13,000 years ago. Seven additional artifacts of Clovis affinity from the Wood Springs site were also identified as well as two tooth fragments from a mastodon and a mammoth. Large mammals like mammoths and mastodons were hunted for food by the Clovis people. These animals went extinct about 10,000-11,000 years ago. The larger fragment is highly polished and may have served as a tool. All of these artifacts may be viewed in the museum’s prehistory exhibit.

Fragments of mastodon tooth.

[Images are taken from The Prehistory of Southeast Texas: Observations from the Andy Kyle Archeological Collection, Power Point presentation by Wilson W. “Dub” Crook III, Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, October 2, 2018.]

The Savoy site is another of the more prolific sites represented in the Kyle Collection. It is located about 2.6 miles southwest of the Moss Hill community in north-central Liberty County. Among the significant items from this site discovered in the collection by HAS members were 58 sherds from a large oval-shaped vessel, that Andy Kyle had bagged separately from all the other sherds he collected at that site. The sherds have sweeping curvilinear designs made by a bone or wood tool (“stamped”). Two large sections of the vessel were retrofitted by HAS members, which indicated a large oval-shaped bowl about 12 inches across.

Mabin Stamped var. Joe’s Bayou vessel

The sherds are from a “Mabin Stamped” vessel, an early ceramic type from the Woodland Period (2,000-1,400 BP). After extensive examination of the sherds’ decoration, the piece has been tentatively identified as “Mabin Stamped, var. Joe’s Bayou,” a rare variety of ceramics previously found at only five sites in eastern Louisiana and western Mississippi, adjacent to the Mississippi River. This marks the first known occurrence of this type outside the Lower Mississippi Valley as well as in the state of Texas. In each of the other cases, only a single sherd was found. Considering the number of sherds found and the likely size of the vessel, this piece in the Kyle collection represents the best-known example of this type of pottery. It is the only decorated piece of pottery in the entire Kyle collection. It was likely made in the Lower Mississippi Valley and traded or exchanged between various groups before ending up at the Savoy site. (This item is not currently on exhibit.)

Detail of stamping design on exterior of the vessel

[Images are taken from The Prehistory of Southeast Texas: Observations from the Andy Kyle Archeological Collection, Power Point presentation by Wilson W. “Dub” Crook III, Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, October 2, 2018.]

The Sam Houston Center’s museum is currently open by appointment only. Please call 936-336-8821 to reserve an appointment. For more information, please visit the Center’s web page at https://www.tsl.texas.gov/shc/index.html.

[*BP = “Before Present”] What do different date abbreviations mean? Crow Canyon Archaeological Center https://www.crowcanyon.org/


Crook, Wilson W. III, ed., The Andy Kyle Archeological Collection, Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, Houston Archeological Society, Report No. 29, 2017.

Crook, Wilson W. III et al., “A Rare Mabin Stamped, Var. Joe’s Bayou Vessel from the Savoy Site (41LB27), Liberty County, Texas,” The Journal 141: 53-61, Houston Archeological Society, 2019.

The Prehistory of Southeast Texas:  Observations from the Andy Kyle Archeological Collection, Power Point presentation by Wilson W. “Dub” Crook III, Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, October 2, 2018.

SHC Museum Activity Book Available Online

Atascosito: The History of Southeast Texas is the permanent exhibit on display at the Sam Houston Center. The exhibit is currently closed to visitors due to the coronavirus. Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

While our Sam Houston Center exhibit, Atascosito: The History of Southeast Texas is not currently open due to the coronavirus, we are offering a bit of off-site fun and games for kids with a museum activity book available for download. Atascosito chronicles the region’s past through informative displays from the Center’s collections of artifacts, photographs, maps, and historical documents. Although the exhibit appeals to an audience of all ages, the displays serve as engaging educational tools for teaching the history of the area. Interactive devices built into the exhibit are aimed at capturing the attention of younger visitors. TSLAC celebrated in 2018 the museum renovation with a “grand reopening” party and tours. View images of that event here.

Interior view of Atascosito: The History of Southeast Texas. The large volume on display in the first exhibit case is the executive record book from Sam Houston’s second term as president of the Republic of Texas. Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

The exhibit showcases the developments of this corner of Texas, including its river economy, timber industry, rice agriculture, and expansive oil fields, while also sharing stories of the thousands of years of growth and movement of people through what has become the ten-county region of Jasper, Jefferson, Hardin, Liberty, Orange, San Jacinto, Polk, Newton, Chambers, and Tyler. Two bases of Clovis points dated to around 11,000 B.C.E. that offer the earliest evidence of human activity in the region are highlights of the exhibit, along with a tooth fragment from a Columbian mammoth. More recent items on view are an executive record book kept by Texas Republic President Sam Houston and artifacts from 19th century steamboats. The museum activity book references subjects covered in the exhibit and other Texas themes in word puzzles, coloring pages, and more.

DIY Museum Activity Book

Explore themes related to the Atascosito District of Texas with the puzzles, games, and coloring pages inside. Click on the image or the link below and print out your own color copy.

For more information about the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, visit: https://www.tsl.texas.gov/shc. Contact via email at SamHoustonCenter@tsl.texas.gov or call 936-336-8821.

“Wish You Were Here!” Exhibit Opens at Sam Houston Center

The Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center presents the exhibit, “Wish You Were Here!” now on display in the Center’s museum. “Wish You Were Here!” highlights historic Southeast Texas vacation spots, industry, culture and recreational opportunities through a selection of postcards, tourism publications and historic documents curated from the research collections.

Among other sources, the exhibit pulls from the substantial Don Kelly Southeast Texas Postcard Collection, which covers almost the entirety of the 20th century and features visual documentation of the Southeast Texas oil refineries, architecture, rivers, railroads and much more.

An illustration of the front of the Pleasure Pier amusement complex in Port Arthur, located on Lake Sabine. The pier is pictured as completed, even though it was unfinished at the time of publication. 1991.183-964, Don Kelly Southeast Texas postcard collection. Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Postcards promoted tourist attractions in the region and tell us about what appealed to those seeking leisurely adventure at a particular moment in time. Pleasure Pier in Port Arthur entertained visitors to the Gulf Coast and became a hot-spot for the local young people after the Pleasure Pier bridge was constructed in 1931. The amusements included a roller coaster, midway games and a dance hall with live music.

A color-added photograph of the Jefferson Theatre in Beaumont. 1991.183-236, Don Kelly Southeast Texas postcard collection. Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Built in 1927, Beaumont’s historic Jefferson Theater was the site of a world premier of the film “It’s a Wonderful Life” twenty years later. The lovely theater is still in operation and stands as an impressive reminder of the glamorous era of film in the United States.

Sour Lake’s springs and hotel were a draw because of the purported health benefits of the sulphur in the water. The sulphur was also an indicator of oil in the area and the petroleum industry transformed the community into a boomtown in the early 1900s.

A photograph of Springs Hotel in Sour Lake. 1991.183-1384, Don Kelly Southeast Texas postcard collection. Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Postcards and promotional materials contribute to our material culture and reveal how people interacted with their environment and each other. Visit “Wish You Were Here!” for a fascinating view of the past.

A component of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission (TSLAC), the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center houses local government records, rare books, manuscripts, archival materials, photographs and other media formats covering a wide range of Southeast Texas history. In addition to the archives and museum, four historic buildings and the Jean Price Daniel Home and Archives are located on the Center’s grounds. Museum hours are Tuesday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. and Saturdays from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Visit https://www.tsl.texas.gov/shc for more information.

New Exhibit Coming Soon! “Women’s Power, Women’s Vote” Opens in June

The Texas State Library and Archives Commission (TSLAC) will unveil its new exhibit, “Women’s Power, Women’s Vote” on June 17, 2019. On display through March 2020 in our lobby gallery, this exhibit is timed to coincide with the centenary of Texas’s ratification of the 19th Amendment. Texas ratified the constitutional amendment on June 28, 1919, making it the ninth of the 36 states needed for national approval. This exhibit explores the motivation for and evolution of this struggle and is documented through the personal collections of Texas women and government records. The 19th Amendment officially became law in August of 1920.

A group of women registering to vote in the primary election of 1918 pose in front of the Travis County Courthouse.
Travis County Women Register to Vote, 1918. W.D. Hornaday Collection, Prints and Photographs Collection, Archives and Information Services Division, Texas State Library and Archives Commission. #1975/70-5449

The grand opening event will take place on Tuesday, June 18, from 3 to 5 p.m. with refreshments and selected items on view from our collections, in addition to the main exhibit. We will also host a panel discussion, featuring:

  • Nancy Baker Jones, PhD (moderator), President, Board of Directors, Ruthe Winegarten Foundation for Texas Women’s History;
  • Grace Chimene, President, Board of Directors, League of Women Voters of Texas;
  • Nikki Van Hightower, PhD, former Women’s Advocate for the City of Houston, Harris County Treasurer, city liaison for the 1977 International Women’s Year National Conference, and activist.

Located in Austin, TSLAC offers ongoing exhibits in the lobby of the Lorenzo de Zavala building at 1201 Brazos St. Monday through Friday, 8-5 and monthly on Second Saturdays from 9-4. For directions and parking information, see https://www.tsl.texas.gov/visit. Exhibits are free and open to the public.