1860s: Freedom at Last | 1870s: Representation | 1880s: Repression | 1890s: End of an Era | The Biographies | Conclusions


The 1890s: End of an Era and the Quest for Civil Rights

Black Codes | Jim Crow Laws | Voting Rights | Robert Lloyd Smith | The Quest for Civil Rights |

Partly as a result of the increase in racism between 1890 and 1919, African Americans developed and rediscovered ideas that promoted partial or full withdrawal from white society into their own cultural, social, and economic enclaves. Despite the double burden of segregation and disenfranchisement, African-American Texans established churches, schools, and other social organizations to serve their own needs. They established businesses such as newspapers, grocery stores, and funeral homes that served a predominant African-American clientele.


Page last modified: April 22, 2015