Conclusions 1870s: Representation Biographies 1890s: End of an Era 1880s: Repression Home 1860s: Freedom at Last

The 1860s: The Emancipation Proclamation

In September 1862, President Lincoln declared that " . . . all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State . . . shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free," as of January 1, 1863. Since the states forming the confederacy had left the Union by this time, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation would be effective only if the North won the Civil War.

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Page last modified: August 26, 2011