Major Players in Texas Annexation

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Narrative history of Annexation | Narrative history of Secession and Readmission

ABERDEEN, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of
British foreign minister, known for his role in settling boundary disputes between the United States and Britain

ADAMS, John Quincy
Proposed purchasing Texas while president, but was chief opponent to annexation while serving in the House of Representatives

ALLEN, Ebenezer
Attorney General and Secretary of State in Anson Jones' Cabinet. Helped frame annexation terms

ALMONTE, Juan Nepomuceno
Authored a comprehensive inspection report on Texas in 1834. Mexican Minister to the United States, 1841-1845

ARCHER, Branch Tanner
Selected along with Stephen F. Austin and William H. Wharton by the Consultation in 1835, to serve as a commissioner to the United States. Lobbied for assistance for the Texas cause

ARCHER, William Segar
Chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 1842-1845, and opposed to annexation

AUSTIN, Stephen Fuller

Appointed in 1845 as Secretary of the Navy by President Polk. Known principally as a historian and author of the monumental publication History of the United States


British minister to Mexico 1844

BEE, Barnard Elliott, Sr.
Secretary of state under David G. Burnet, secretary of war under Sam Houston, and later secretary of state in the first administration of Mirabeau B. Lamar. Bee was sent to Mexico in 1839 in an unsuccessful effort to secure recognition of Texan independence. Bee also served as a minister to the U.S. 1838-41, but was opposed to annexation

BENTON, Thomas Hart
Missouri Senator who over the years introduced several bills favoring Texas annexation, including the bill that became section three of the annexation resolution

BIDDLE, Nicholas
Former head of the Second Bank of the United States, Biddle was in favor of annexation

BIRNEY, James G.
National Liberty Party candidate in the 1844 presidential election. Birney's candidacy drew votes away from the Whig candidate Henry Clay, resulting in the election of the pro-annexation Democrat, James Polk

BLAIR, Frances P.
Editor of the Washington Globe and a proponent of annexation

Mexican Minister of Foreign Relations

BROWN, Milton
Tennessee Representative whose successful 1845 House Resolution to admit Texas as a state formed the basis for the final Joint Resolution

Served as United States Secretary of State under President Polk, and supported the annexation of Texas

BUTLER, Anthony
U.S. Minister to Mexico 1830-35. Authorized to offer $5 million for Texas, his conduct in "negotiation" became so offensive he had to be removed

Served as Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President John Tyler, 1844-1845, and participated in the annexation negotiations

CASS, Lewis
United States Senator from Michigan who favored the annexation of Texas. Cass was considered a candidate for Democratic Party nomination for president in 1844, but lost to James K. Polk

Associate Justice on the United States Supreme Court from 1837 to 1865

CHANNING, William E.
Unitarian Minister whose A Letter to the Hon. Henry Clay on the Annexation of Texas to the United States... strongly opposed Texas annexation

CLAY, Henry
As Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams he attempted to purchase Texas; his waffling on the annexation question probably cost him the presidency

CONNER, David E.
Naval commodore sent by Tyler and Polk to the Gulf of Mexico to provide naval assistance to Texas if needed

Mexican Foreign Minister

CYPREY, Alleye de
French Minister to Mexico

DONELSON, Andrew Jackson
U.S. chargé to the Republic of Texas, 1844-1845

DOUGLAS, Stephen A.
Proposed a joint resolution for annexation in the U.S. House in December 1844 and reported a joint resolution declaring Texas a fully empowered state in December 1845

DRUMGOOLE, [George]?

ELLIOT, Charles
British chargé for the Republic of Texas 1842, ff. He worked to bring about Mexican recognition of Texas independence

EVE, Joseph
U.S. chargé for the Republic of Texas, 1841-43

U.S. minister to England

FORBES, James A.

U.S. Secretary of State

GARRISON, William Lloyd

GOROSTIZA, Manuel de
Mexican minister to U. S. until the end of 1836. His pamphlet accusing the U.S. of complicity in the Revolution in Texas delayed recognition of the new Republic

GREEN, Benjamin E.
U.S. chargé for Mexico. In 1844 he met with Bocanegra and proposed that Mexico allow its representatives in Washington to open boundary negotiations (including those between Texas and Mexico). The Mexican minister restated his country's intention to go to war if Texas were annexed

Jacksonian editor, later Tyler's special emissary in England

GUERRERO, Vicente Ramón
Became Mexican president after Pedraza was put out of office by revolution in 1828

GUIZOT, Francois
French premier, 1840 ff

Commissioner under Lamar to negotiate a $5 million loan with U.S., diplomatic agent working for recognition of Texan independence, particularly in France and Mexico. Negotiated treaties of recognition with Netherlands and England

HAYWOOD, William H., Jr.
Senator from North Carolina. Proposed the amending legislation that broke the deadlock over passage of the amended joint resolution. His suggestion was to vest in the President the discretionary power in choosing between the alternatives set forth in the resolution

HENDERSON, James Pinckney
Succeeded Austin as Secretary of State. Minister to England and France 1837-9; with Van Zandt he negotiated annexation treaty in 1844

HERRERA, Jose Joaquin
Mexican president ad interim December 1844, became president "by default" when Santa Anna's attempt to overthrow the government failed

HOCKLEY, George Washington
One of the group who accompanied Santa Anna to Washington, DC. Houston sent him with S.M. Williams to negotiate an armistice with Mexico in 1843


HOWARD, Tilghman Ashurst
Appointed U.S. chargé to Texas in 1844, but died of yellow fever soon after he arrived. Houston and Jones pressed him for confirmation of Tyler's earlier promise to give military protection to Texas during negotiations

HUNT, Memucan
Appointed along with Wiliam H. Wharton to gain U.S. recognition of independence. Houston appointed him Texan minister to the U.S. Presented the Texan proposal for annexation in 1837. Negotiated a boundary convention with the U.S. in 1838 and served on the joint boundary commission in 1839

Chairman of the committee on foreign relations in 1844. In the next session he moved a joint resolution embodying the substance of the treaty, but the proposal was rejected



Representative from Tennessee with considerable political influence in the lower chamber. He favored a compromise candidate in the 1844 convention

JONES, Anson

LAMAR, Mirabeau Buonaparte

McDUFFIE, George
Senator from South Carolina and perceived as Calhoun's man in the Senate. Pro-annexation, he submitted a joint resolution for annexation that came on the Senate floor June 11, 1844. Eventually defeated, the joint resolution was reintroduced at the beginning of the 1845 session but failed to pass

MILLER, Washington D.

MURPHY, William Sumter
U.S. chargé for Texas, 1843-4. He gave Houston an unauthorized assurance of U.S. protection during the treaty negotiations. The Senate failed to confirm his appointment, but he died before he could return to the U.S.


PAGEOT, Alphonse
French minister to United States

British minister to U.S., 1843, ff; sent there from his previous post as minister to Mexico

Head of the opposition party during Peel's administration

PEDRAZA, Manuel Gomez
President of Mexico, 1828, but overthrown and replaced by Guerrero

PEEL, Sir Robert
Prime minister, 1841-6

POINSETT, Joel Roberts
U.S. minister to Mexico under Jackson. Authorized to pay up to a million dollars to readjust the boundary negotiated in 1819, his ineptitude and arrogance forced his recall in 1829

POLK, James K.

RAYMOND, Charles H.
Succeeded Isaac Van Zandt as charge to the U.S. in 1843 and became secretary of the legation in 1844

REILY, James
Appointed minister to the U.S. on 12-23-1841 (rank later downgraded to charge, however). Signed the treaty of amity and commerce and navigation between the U.S. and Texas negotiated in 1842 (but never ratified). Reappointment in 1844 was not confirmed by the Texas Senate since Reily opposed annexation

REJON, Manuel Crescencio
Mexican minister to U.S. His letters to Shannon in 1844 threatened Mexican reprisals against Texas. The correspondence gave Tyler an excuse to further urge annexation in his December 18 message to Congress conveying the documents

One of the prisoners seized by Woll in 1842, he opened a clandestine correspondence with Santa Anna. He was released from prison and allowed to take terms for an agreement between Texas and Mexico. He delivered the terms to Houston, and may have been responsible for the ensuing armistice negotiations

RUSK, Thomas Jefferson
President of the Convention of 1845

SALIGNY, Alphonse de
French chargé appointed in 1839. After the failure of the Franco Texienne bill, he returned to France, but came back as chargé briefly in 1842. Appointed again in 1844, he worked against annexation

SANTA ANNA, Antonio López de

SEDGWICK, Theodore
His 1843 letters to the New York Evening Post, later issued as a pamphlet Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas, declared annexation unconstitutional

U.S. minister to Mexico 1844 whose October 14, 1844 letter to Rejon set off the controversial series of exchanges. His insistence that Rejon withraw the offensive letters left Shannon with little diplomatic influence

As commander of the militia, Sherman was accused by Jones in his memoirs of plotting to seize Matamoros in league with Robert F. Stockton. Stockton alleged that he persuaded Sherman to call out the militia for border defense

SMITH, Ashbel
Texan chargé to England and France, 1842-44. Secretary of State in 1844 and negotiated the Smith- Cuevas treaty with Mexico, recognizing Texas independence

STOCKTON, Robert Field
U.S. naval commodore who arrived in the Gulf in May 1845 to convey the annexation resolution to the Texan government

TAPPAN, Benjamin
Leaked the details of the U.S.-Texas annexation treaty to the press during the deliberations, causing a public outcry against the proposed treaty

TAYLOR, Zachary

TERRELL, George Whitfield
Texas Secretary of State under Burnet for a short time in 1841, and 1844 was appointed chargé to France, Great Britain and Spain

U.S. minister to Mexico 1842-44. Helped obtain the release of Santa Fe Expedition prisoners. Favored annexation

TREAT, James
Lamar appointed him as special agent to Mexico in 1839 to try to negotiate a peace treaty. He worked unsuccessfully: Mexico rejected the treaty in October 1840. He died on the voyage back to Texas


Secretary of State, 1843-44. Instrumental in the negotiations to annex Texas, Upshur was killed in the Princeton explosion

U.S. Secretary of State, 1829-31; U.S. President, 1839-41. Opposed annexation

Appointed charge d'affairs to U.S. in 1842, he served throughout the treaty negotiations of 1844. Member of the Convention of 1845


WALKER, Robert J.
Offered a proposal for recognizing Texas in January 1837 that eventually passed in March. Early proponent of annexation. In 1844 he helped break the stalemate in the Senate by suggesting that Brown's House Resolution and Benton's proposals be combined on an amended joint resolution that finally succeeded

WARD, Henry G.
British minister to Mexico. He warned Mexican authorities against allowing American colonization in the 1820s and later tangled with Poinsett when the latter arrived in Mexico

WEBB, James
Appointed Secretary of State by Lamar, later sent as a minister to Mexico. Mexico refused to receive him, however. Served in the Convention of 1845

Secretary of State, 1841-43. As senator in 1845 he opposed annexation

Representative from Ohio who authored one of several resolutions in December 1844 for annexing Texas. He called for Texas' admission as a territory

WHARTON, William Harris
One of three commissioners sent by the Consultation to negotiate support and funding from the U.S., later the first Texas minister to U.S.

WICKLIFFE, Charles Anderson
Confidential U.S. agent sent to counteract any British or French efforts to stop annexation

Representative whose attempt to bring a resolution against annexing Texas failed so completely in 1844 that its failure was considered a test of Congressional sentiment on the subject

U.S. Senator from New York whose proposal to fund a Secretary of Legation in Texas eventually passed in 1837

YELL, Archibald
Active in the U.S. and Texas to promote annexation, Yell was sent by Polk to Texas to convey President Tyler's choice of annexation options to Donelson, the chargé to Texas

Page last modified: August 25, 2011