Annexation Process: 1836-1845
A Summary Timeline
Texas declares independence from Mexico.
Battle of San Jacinto. Victory over Mexican army and capture of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna on the following day achieves de facto Texas independence.
Texans vote on new government officers, national constitution, and the question of annexation to the United States. Vote overwhelmingly in favor of annexation.
Resolution to recognize Texas introduced in the U.S. Senate.
General Santa Anna arrives in Washington, DC.
U.S. recognizes the Republic of Texas, the last act of the Jackson Presidency.
Santa Anna, home in Mexico, renounces all guarantees made to the Republic of Texas as a condition to his restoration of freedom.
U.S. Secretary of State reports that treaty agreements with Mexico prohibit the U.S.'s annexing Texas.
Texas minister to the United States presents U.S. government a formal offer from the Republic of Texas to annex itself to the United States.
Senator William C. Preston introduces a resolution for a tripartite treaty between the U.S./Mexico/Texas in the U.S. Senate.
The above measure is tabled.
JUNE & JULY
John Quincy Adams speaks against the annexation of Texas all morning, every morning in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Texas withdraws the offer of annexation because of the U.S. Congress' lack of action on the proposal.
Texas Congress passes joint resolution approving of President Sam Houston's withdrawal of annexation proposal.
U.S. Senate passes a proposed commerce treaty with the Republic of Texas. However, the Senate's amendment of the original treaty terms causes the Texas Congress to reject the final version of the treaty.
Sam Houston issues proclamation declaring armistice between Mexico and Texas.
President Houston submits annexation question to Texas Congress, then instructs minister to the U.S. to resume annexation talks.
An annexation treaty between the U.S. and Texas signed between the two diplomats.
U.S. Senate rejects the treaty, 35 to 16.
U.S. Senate votes to table the Benton Annexation Bill.
Joint Resolution to annex Texas passes the U.S. House of Representatives.
Joint Resolution, with amendments to be voted on by the House, passes U.S. Senate 27 to 25.
House adopts Senate version of the joint resolution to annex the Republic of Texas 132 to 76.
President Tyler signs annexation resolution.
Annexation offer sent to Texas president Anson Jones.
Cuevas-Smith treaty between Mexico and Texas signed guaranteeing Texas independence so long as it remains a separate republic.
Texas Congress meets in special session to consider both the proposed Mexican treaty and the annexation resolution from the U.S. Congress. U.S. offer accepted.
Convention meets to consider both the Mexican treaty and the U.S. annexation resolution. U.S. offer accepted by Convention.
Annexation ordinance and state constitution submitted to the Texas voters for approval. (The vote tally on November 10, 1845, was 4,254 to 267 in favor of annexation; the total vote, compiled January 1, 1846, was 7,664 to 430 in favor of annexation.)
U.S. House votes to annex Texas by Joint Resolution, 141 to 58, 21 abstaining.
U.S. Senate approves joint resolution for the admission of Texas as a state 31 to 14, 7 abstaining.
President Polk signs the Joint Resolution. Texas officially the 28th state on this date.
Transfer of government completed when Governor J. Pinckney Henderson takes the oath of office.